Astromney, geography and earth sciences Flashcards

Planet
Terms Definitions
Celestial Sphere
A model of the sky; An imaginary sphere surrounding Earth on which celestial bodies are projected.
Zenith
The point directly overhead where an observer stands.
Celestial Poles
Projection of Earth's North and South Poles onto the celestial sphere. Creates North and South celestial pole.
Celestial Meridian
An imaginary line that starts at the North point on the horizon, goes to the zenith, and from the zenith to the south point of the horizon.
Distance
All celestial objects appear attached to the celestial sphere. We lack depth perception when we look into space. Therefore, all objects appear at the same ______.
Horizon System
Allows us to locate celestial objects in the sky. Divides the celestial dome into imaginary lines called altitude and azimuth.
Altitude
The celestial object's angle above the horizon. This can be measured in degrees or fractions.
The celestial object is on the horizon, or __.
90°
The celestial object is on the zenith, or __.
Azimuth
The celestial object's direction along the horizon. Measured in degrees or common terms.
North
90°
East
180°
South
270°
West
Direct Relationship
As the planets get farther from the sun, their revolution period increases. Which type of relationship is this?
Rotation
the amount of time it takes a planet to spin on an imaginary axis (*Think of a spinning ice skater)
Revolution
the movement around the Sun. Planets do this in a counterclockwise direction.
Orbit
A planet's path around the sun; they are elliptical
Elliptical
(Ellipse) Not a perfect circle
Major Axis
the biggest diameter of an ellipse.
(At one of the) Foci In a diagram of the Earth's revolution
, where is the Sun?
Eccentricity of Orbits
Measure of how flat or oval-like an ellipse is; the value is between 0 and 1
0
If an ellipse has an eccentricity of _, its orbit is a perfect circle.
1
If an ellipse has an eccentricity of _, its orbit is a straight line.
e= d/L
What is the formula for eccentricity? (Use letters)
September 23rd
When is the Autumnal Equinox?
March 21st
When the Vernal (Spring) Equinox?
June 21st
When is the Aphelion?
December 21st
When is the Perihelion?
Kepler
Who is the person who has three astronomical laws named after him?
Elliptical Planets
travel in _______ orbits around the sun. The sun is located at one of the foci.
Faster
Slower The closer a planet is to the sun, the ______ it moves and the _____ its time of rotation. (2 Words, separate with a space :])
Equal
An imaginary line connecting the planet to the sun sweeps across ____ areas in ____ times. (One word)
Aphelion
When the the potential energy the greatest?
Potential Energy
Stored energy
Perihelion
When is kinetic energy the greatest?
Kinetic Energy
Energy in motion
Constellation
A pattern of stars that is identified by a given name. Most are based on Greek myth.
No
Do Stars move? Yes or No?
East
Sun rises in the _ _ _ _
West
Sun sets in the _ _ _ _
Circumpolar Constellations
Constellations that can always be seen above the horizon. They do NOT rise and set like our sun, but they appear to move around Polaris.
Five
How many constellations can be seen from L.I. or any point on the same latitude? Write out the number.
Camelopardalis
Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Draco, Ursa Minor, Which 5 constellations can be seen from LI at all times? List alphabetically. Separate with a comma and a space.
Polaris
A star that appears fixed in the sky; all other stars appear to rotate around this. Noncircumpolar
Constellations
A group of stars that appear to move. They can only be seen at certain times of the day and year.
Aphelion
June 21st; Earth is FARTHEST from the Sun
Perihelion
December 21; Earth is CLOSEST to the Sun
No
. Does Earth's eccentric orbit cause the seasons? Yes or No?
Apparent Motion
The motion a planet appears to make.
Earth's rotation
Why do stars seem to move across the sky?
Arc
A part of a circle is called an ___.
15° per hour
What is the angular rate of rotation of the Earth? (Hourly)
Daily Motion
Movements of celestial objects over a 24-hour period
Retrograde Motion
The planets appear to change position with respect to the background field of stars around them. The planets appear to move back and forth in an "S" or "Z"-like pattern.
Greater
The longer the Sun's path over a certain area, the _______ amount of sunlight an area will get.
Due East
Where does the Sun rise on the equinoxes?
Due West
Where does the Sun set on the equinoxes?
North of East
Where does the sun rise during the summer?
North of West
Where does the Sun set during the summer?
South of East
Where does the sun rise during the winter?
South of West
Where does the sun set during the winter?
Local Solar
Noon The time at which the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky.
No.
Is it possible for the Sun to be at the Zenith in NY?
Tropic of Cancer
(23.5°N) Where in the world is the Sun at the zenith on the summer solstice?
Equator
(0° Latitude) Where in the world is the Sun at the Zenith on the equinoxes?
Tropic of Capricorn
(23.5°S) Where in the world is the Sun at the zenith on the winter solstice?
South
In order to see the Sun at solar noon in the Northern Hemisphere at solar noon, one would look towards the _____.
North
If in the Southern Hemisphere, which direction would one look to find the sun at solar noon?
Geocentric Model
The diagram that had Earth was the center of the galaxy. It was believed by many early cultures. It did not explain the apparent motions of the planets.
Epicycles
The paths of revolution on a path of revolution. "Spirally Circle"
Heliocentric Model
The diagram that has the Sun as the center of the solar system.
Foucault
Pendulum When one of these is allowed to swing freely , its path will change in a predictable way. Due to inertia, this is true. If it weren't, the movement of the pendulum would be from the same direction. This was first discovered in 1851.
Coriolis Effect
The tendency of all particles of matter moving at earth's surface to be deflected (curved away) from a straight line path. The deflection is to the right in the N. Hemisphere and to the left in the S. Hemisphere. The only logical explanation to this is that the Earth rotates.
1
How many degrees does the Earth move in its orbit daily? In other words, how many degrees does it move in its revolution per day?
Cyclic
How does the apparent diameter of the Sun appear to change? In which relationship?
Local Time
The time based on the rotation of Earth as reflected in motions of the Sun
Solar Day
The amount of time it takes to get from one solar noon to the next. Because of Earth's elliptical orbit, this varies from day-to-day in a cyclic relationship.
West to East
Does Earth rotate from East to West or West to East?
Spring Tides
The tides with the greatest variation in water level
Neap Tides
The tides with the smallest variation in water level
Star Trails
The "camera" shots of stars moving. This creates arcs and allows for us to see how fast we are rotating.
Bottom circle
Where is the horizon found on a celestial dome?
Horizon
The apparent line that separates the ground from the sky.
Apparent
Daily motions of Stars Create circular paths. If you're close to Polaris, the whole "circle" is visible.
Retrograde motion
Planets make loops and move back and forth; caused by planets orbiting at different speeds around the sun. "Squiggle"
50
How many minutes later does the moon rise each day?
Season
What causes the length of the Sun's arc to change?
Model
A small scale version of a real thing
Ptolemy
The man that came up with the Geocentric Theory.
Heliocentric Model...
Stars are fixed; Planets are revolving around the sun; sun is rising and setting; sun is stationary; Earth is revolving and rotating; moon revolves around Earth
Copernicus
Came up with the Heliocentric Model
Apparent
Motion of Planets The rise and set of a planet as viewed from Earth.
Gravitational
Pull Greatest when masses are largest and distance is shortest.
Foci
2 points in a given ellispe
12/27/1571;
Germany When was Kepler born? Where?
1/4/1643;
England When and where was Newton born?
Kepler's Laws 1)
All planets have elliptical orbits with the Sun at one of the Foci 2) a line from one of the foci to any point on the ellipse will travel equal distances in equal time, 3)the farther a planet is from the sun, the longer its period of rotation.
Newton
Proved the heliocentric theory; theories of gravitation and Kepler's laws of planetary motion
gnomon
something that casts a shadow and is used to find the sun's position
pattern
a set of events that occur repeatedly
three
examples of patterns months, days, weeks
astronomy
the scientific study of objects beyond Earth's atmosphere
three
examples of astronomy sun, moon, stars
geology
the study of materials that make up Earth as well as the patterns and changes in those materials
meterology
the study of the patterns of change that take place in the Earth's atmosphere
oceanography
the study of oceans, the water, it's movement, and the ocean floor
second
standard measurement for time
meter
standard unit of length
liter
a unit to measure volume
freezing point
(celsius) 0 degrees
boiling point
(celsius) 100 degrees
mass
how much is inside an object
gram
a measurement for weight
direct
measurement measure using standard unit
kilogram
a measurement for weight
1 kg
= ____ grams 1000 grams
indirect measurement
make direct measurement and then use a calculation
hypothesis
possible explanation to a problem
variable
something that can change or cause an event
data
information during an experiment
control
something kept the same during an experiment
scientific model
picture that shows what is observed in nature
conclusion
opinion about hypothesis based on data
theory
hypothesis supported by experiments
lab
room used for conducting expirements
geographic
north direction of the geographic North Pole
legend
list at the edge of a map that explains symbols
magnetosphere
magnetic field of the Earth
magnetic
north pole of the magnetic field in Bathurst Islands
magnetic
declination angle between magnetic pole and geographic pole
cartographers
mapmakers
equator
imaginary east - west line that runs around the Earth (divides the Earth into the North and South hemisphere)
latitude
measurement of how far a place is from the equator
prime meridian
an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole through Greenwich England and then to the South pole
longitude
Distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees North and South of the equator
10-65 km
made of cooled rock crust
mantle
2800km thick made of iron, magnesium, and silicon
outer core
2100km thick made of iron, nickel (liquid)
inner core
1400km iron, nickel (solid due to massive pressure)
topographic map
shows ___ height, depth of artificial, and natural landforms
relief
height and depth of land
contour
lines connects points with same elevation they never cross (one spot can't have two elevations)
contour interval
This is the vertical distance between adjacent contour lines.
what represents
depressions hash marks
benchmark
Permanent reference mark of point established for use by surveyors in measuring differences in elevation shows elevation and latitude/longitude
elevation
distance of something above a reference point (such as sea level)
altitude
height of an object in the sky above the horizon
rotation
the spinning of an object on its axis
axis
the center around which something rotates
the Earth
revolves which way counterclockwise
orbit
the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another
ellipse
a circle that has been stretched in either the x or y direction (x= up, y= left or right)
summer
solstice altitude is 74 degrees, June 21st, 1st day of summer
fall
equinox equal day/night, 1st day of spring, halfway between the summer solatice and the winter solstice, 50 degrees altitude
winter solstice
first day of winter, sun is 27 degrees altitude. shortest day and the longest night of the year.
spring equinox
march 21st first day of spring days will start to increase and temperature will increase. 50 degrees altitude
Earth
is often referred to as, the blue planet in space
What percent of the earth is water
71%
What percent of the earth is land
29%
Why is the study of the Ocean important?
Planet is 2/3 water, Resources,and Climate
Bathymetry
measurement of the ocean depths and the shape of the ocean floor.
Echo sounder
(also known as sonar)
Multibeam sonar
Can obtain a profile of a narrow strip of seafloor
What are the 3 major units of the ocean floor
Continental margins ,Ocean Basin Floor ,Mid Ocean ridges,mountains under water
Abyssal plains
The most level place on earth= FLAT
Seamounts and guyots
Isolated volcanic peaks
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