AP US History Progressive Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
John Gast
drew American Progress, moving West away from light
Emanuel Leutze
drew Westward Ho, moving West toward light
George Catlin
created a visual documentary of the Indian tribes in the western plains by traveling and painting portraits and important events
Indian Removal Act
passed in 1830 by Congress; it called for the government to negotiate treaties that would require the Native Americans to relocate West.
Worcester v. Georgia
case where the state of Georgia tried to remove the Cherokee Indians, but Congress said it was illegal to remove them off their own land
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Fort Laramie Treaty
1851 treaty with indian nations located near fort laramie in wyoming. the treaty asked each indian nation to keep to a limited area in return for money, domestic animals, agricultural tools, and other goods (reservations- theirs forever)
counting crop
touching enemy with stick while escaping
Sand Creek Massacre
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Fetterman Massacre
Fetterman's army led into wilderness and ambushed by Sioux, 82 soldiers killed, sparked public debate over Indian policy
Red River War
war between Kiowa and Comanche; gov. herds people of friendly tribes onto reservations while opening fire on all others
Washita River
Custer wipes out tribe of indians
Bureau of Indian Affairs
to manage Indian removal to western lands, Congress approved the creation of a new government agency
Carlisle School
attempt to assimilate native american children into US culture
sun dance
A dance where the Plains Indian sought a vision to guide them for the rest of their lives
Custer's Last Stand
Custer's army was defeated by indians
Helen Hunt Jackson
Author of A Century of Dishonor
Dawes Act
broke up reservations and gave it to individual indians, act failed
Battle of Wounded Knee
US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars.
Ghost Dance
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
Joseph McCoy
a cattle trader who built large cattle pens called stockyards near some railroad tracks in Abilene, Kansas
Chisholm Trail
a former cattle trail from San Antonio in Texas to Abilene in Kansas
William Cody ("Buffalo Bill")
created modern wild west show
Joseph Glidden
Invented barbed wire
Homestead Act
Provided free land to settlers who were willing to live on it and cultivate it
Burke Act
said that natives could become citizens if they left their tribe
Snyder Indian Citizenship Act
declared that all natives are citizens
Henry D. Washburn / Nathaniel L. Longford
convinced government to protect wilderness from settlement
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
a house built of sod or adobe laid in horizontal courses
Morill Act
put land asside to create agricultural colleges
Hatch Act
1887 - Provided for agricultural experimentation stations in every state to improve farming techniques.
bananza farming
single-crop spreads over large piece of land
paper money
hard money
silver and gold
Oliver Hudson Kelly
started Patrons of Husbandry
originally the Patrons of Husbandry, was a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers. During the late 1800's, the Grange, strove to regulate railway rates and storage fees charged by railroads, warehouses, and grain elevators through state legislation. These laws that were passed, but eventually reversed, are referred to as the Granger Laws.
Farmer's Alliance
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
Panic of 1893
Sharp economic downturn that began when the railroad industry faltered during the early 1890s followed by the collapse of many related industries
a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by stated amounts of two metals (usually gold and silver) with values set at a predetermined ratio
gold standard
a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold
William McKinley
The twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last veteran of the Civil War to be elected. By the 1880s, this Ohio native was a nationally known Republican leader; his signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. As the Republican candidate in the 1896 presidential election, he upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. Later a witness in the Scopes Monkey Trial
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
cheap money
when government puts more money into circulation
Greenback Party
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war
James B. Weaver
presidential candidate for the Greenback Party in 1880
Tom Watson
Newspaper editor that led the Populist Movement
Mary Elizabeth Lease
became well known during the early 1890's for her actions as a speaker for the populist party. She was a tall, strong woman who made numerous and memorable speeches on behalf of the downtrodden farmer. She denounced the money-grubbing government and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation.
Mark Hanna
1st campaign manager for William McKinley, He was the Republican leader who managed President McKinley's 1896 campaign.
Gold Standard Act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.
Frank Baum
United States writer of children's books (1856-1919) Wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
Progressive Movement
reform effort, generally centered in urban areas and begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting injustices in American life.
Florence Kelly
helped persuade to prohibit child labor and limit number of hours women were forced to work, founded national child labor committe
a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Reform group in favor of temperance, moral purity, and the rights of women
Anti Saloon League
An organization that pioneered the singleness force of prohibition into the state and local elections
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
Robert M. La Follette
progressive wisconsin govenor whose adgenda of reforms was known as the wisconsin idea
National Child Labor Committee
sent investigators to gather evidence of children working in harsh conditions
Keating Owen Act
prohibited transport of goods produced by child labor( later struck down by supreme ct. )
Muller v. Oregon
A case ruled Constitutional to set limits on the number of hours a woman could work.
16th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
17th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution guaranteed the direct election of Senators by the voters. In the case of a vacancy, a special election is called to fill the vacancy.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Wheeler-Howard Act
gave land back to indians, reorganized reservations
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
gave government authority to create treaties
Timber Culture Act
1873-act of Congress added to the Homestead Act stating a person who planted 40 acres of trees and maintained timber for 10 years were granted 160 acres of land
Desert Land Act
1906, Federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years.
Newlands Reclamation Act
Law that allowed the federal government to build irrigation projects to make marginal lands productive.
Bland Allison Act
1873 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
Ignatius Donnelly
Minnesota editor and politician; wrote the Omaha platform preamble; prized silver coinage
Social Gospel Movement
a social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society
Settlement House Movement
created community centers, provided schools, child care, and cultural activities.
Frances Willard
Worked for women's suffrage as President of the Women's Temperance Union
Carry Nation
United States prohibitionist who raided saloons and destroyed bottles of liquor with a hatchet (1846-1911)
science dealing with improving the hereditary qualities (genes) of the human race
Mann Act
1909- An act focused on reducing prostitution by prohibiting white slavery, and banning the interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes".
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
Brandeis Brief
brief that said that long work hours were bad for womens' health
scientific management, encouraged the development of mass production techniques and the assembly line, led to a revolution in American education of social science.
National Municipal League
Organization founded in Philadelphia to bring about more honest and efficient government
Samuel Jones
mayor of Toledo who made many radical changes. He was against graft, corruption and police brutality. He favored municipal civil service, open contracts, free kindergartens and playgrounds.
William S. U'Ren
pushed for reform in elections
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
the act of removing an official by petition
Bunting v. Oregon
supreme court upheld the 10-hour work day
Square Deal
Name of TD's programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov't regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Elkins Act
1903 law that forced railroads charge the same prices to all their customers
Hepburn Act
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Pure Food and Drug Act
the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs
Forest Bureau
bureau created to conserve trees
John Muir
United States naturalist (born in England) who advocated the creation of national parks (1838-1914)
Gifford Pinchot
head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
National Reclamation Act
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
Booker T. Washington
Black leader who promoted economic independence and a slow transition for blacks into free society
W. E. B. Dubois
criticized Booker T Washington for unfairly making African Americans responsible for correcting racial injustice
Election of 1908
Republican William Howard Tafft vs Democratic William Jennings Bryan. Tafft won becuase he was good friend and Secretary of War under Roosevelt. Tafft was Roosevelt's successor
Election of 1900
Mckinley, Bryan, Roosevelt. Mainly favored McKinley's "Sound Money," but hated his imperialism. Many who favored Bryan's anti-imperialism feared his free silver. Prosperity and Protection. McKinley with 7,218,491 popular votes. 292 electoral votes.
Election of 1904
Teddy Roosevelt/republican vs. Alton V. Parker/democrat vs. Eugene V. Debs/socialist= Roosevelt
Bureau of Mines
control mineral resources ;; rescued millions of acres of western coal lands, protected water-power sites from private development
Payne Aldrich Tariff
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
an economic system based on state ownership of capital
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
National Park Service
Agency that manages all national parks, national monuments and other conservational and historical places.
Workmens' Compensation Act
protected rights of injured workers
Federal Farm Loan Act
made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest
Warehouse Act
allowed merchants to store goods until a buyer was found
Smith Lever Act
1917-Established the U.S.'s first Food Administration with the authority to fix food prices, license distributors, coordinate purchases, oversee exports, act against hoarding and profiteering, and encourage farmers to grow more crops.
Smith Hughes Act
Provided money for vocational and teacher training - scholorships
Federal Highway Act
Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of interstate highways over a 20-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point.
Clayton Anti Trust Act
replacing the old Sherman act of 1890, exempting unions from being construed as illegal combinations in restraint of trade, and forbidding federal Courts to issue injunctions against strikers.
Federal Trade Commission Act
A federal statute that established the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which probhbits unfair or deceptive acts in advertising and other trade areas
Underwood Act
Reform law that lowered tariff rates and levied the first regular federal income tax.
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
Emmeline Pankhurst
led a women's voting rights campaign in Britain. She founded the WSPU
Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
1902 Coal Strike
140,000 coal miners in pennsylvania went on strike for increase wages a 9 hour work day and the right to unionize
Hammer v. Dagenheart
Keating-Owen Act was unconstitutional on the grounds that it was an invasion of state authority
Bull-Moose Party
name for Progressive Party, Roosevelt ran for 3rd term
World War 1
ended Progressive Era
National Association of Colored Women
organization formed to fight against discrimination and for women's rights
National Women's Suffrage Association
association dedicated towards voting rights for women
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