Am Hist 1st 9wks Flashcards

Terms Definitions
angel/ellis island
where immigrants landed in the U.S. and went through inspection
chinese exclusion act
law enacted in 1882, prohibited all chinese (except students, teachers, merchants, tourists and government officials) from entering the united states
row houses
single family dwellings- shared side walls with other houses to pack many residents onto a single block
graft
illegal use of political influence for personal gain
stalwarts
convention settled on independence for personal gain
patronage
office holder's power to appoint people to positions in government
tammony hall
New York City's powerful democratic political machine
pendleton act (civil service act)
established a law that placed most federal government employees on the merit system and marked the end of the so-called spoils system. The act provided for some government jobs to be filled on the basis of competitive exams.
americanization movement
education program designed to help immigrants assimilate american culture
political machine
an organized group that contained activists of political party in a city
boss tweed (william m tweed)
led tweed ring
tweed ring
group of corrupt politicians defrauding the city
civil service
government administration jobs
rutherford hayes
19th president of the US (republican); During his presidency,ordered federal troops to suppress The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and ended Reconstruction by removing troops from the South. After the removal of the Federal troops, all southern states soon returned to Democratic control
james garfield
accomplished very little in short presidency; had a desire for Civil Service Reform which was eventually passed by his successor Chester A. Arthur in 1883 as the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.
chester arthur
balanced out garfield; (republican)- conckling supporter
grover cleveland
tried to lower tariff rates (but not supported by congress)
benjamin harrison
ran against cleveland (and won)
urbanization
growth of cities
tenements
where many city dwellers crowded into multifamily (often unsanitary)
settlements
were community centers that provided assistance to the urban poor
americanization movement
was designed to assimilate diverse people into the dominant culture
jane addams
one of the most influential members of the social gospel movement, founded chicago's hull house with ellen gates starr.
found work; new equipment
why farmers relocated
stalwarts
these republican supporters of nyc boss roscoe conkling were strongly opposed to civil-service reform
pendleton act
this authorized an independent civil service commission to make government appointments based on the merit system
chester a arthur
this president surprised everyone by turning reformer. his efforts to persuade congress to reform the civil service resulted in pendleton act
rutherford hayes
this president was a strong supporter of civil-service reform. although he did not succeed in getting congress to go along with his plans for reform he was able to clean up the nations custom houses
graft
this was any type of unethical or illegal use of political influence for personal gain
political machine
these were organized groups that controlled the activities of a political party in a city
government employees hired because of spoils system were not qualified to be in their position
why were there efforts to do away with the spoils system
reform
change
spoils system
practice of winning candidates' rewarding their supports with government jobs
patronage
another word for spoils system
settlement houses
community center providing assistance to residents-particularly immigrants- in a slum neighborhood
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone in 1876
transcontinental railroads
event that made communication and trade throughout the country easier
The great strike of 1877
event that showed that labor unions were gaining members
Munns Vs. Illinois
ruled: supreme court= states regulating railroads
Pullman
built factory for manufacturing sleepers and other railroad cars on Illinois prairie
credit mobilier scandal
construction company formed by stockholders and schemed together
granger laws
response to abuses by railroad; "to establish maximum freight and passenger rates and prohibit discrimination"
1887 Interstate Commerce act
established the right of federal government to supervise rail road activities an
Eugene Debs
attempted to form an industrial union
John d Rockefeller
established standard oil company
Mary Harris Jones
most prominent organizer in women's labor movement; support4ed strike of 1877; organized help for minors and looked at all unfair labor (relationship of workers-bosses)
24
amount of time zones
george eastman
invented light weight camera equipment
Daniel Burnham
architect that developed chicago
Luis Sullivan
developed wainwright building (10 stories-bd)
Booker t. Washington
believed that if african americans were all educated then racism would end
W E B Du Bois
1st african american to get PHD
Plessy Vs Ferguson
plessy went on "whites only" car and refused to move, arrested, court ruled "separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites did not violate the constitution"
progressive movement
an early 20th century movement seeking to return control of the government to the people to restore economic opportunities, and to injustices in american life (1890-1920)
progressivism
strived toward protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, relating conceit to economic reform, fostering efficiency
florence kelley
advocate for improving lives of women and children
prohibition
banning of alcoholic beverages
muckrakers
journalists that wrote about corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation
scientific management
industry reformers- studies to see just how quickly each task could be performed
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