Chapter 29 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
(t/f) Wilson won the election of 1912 largely because the Republican Party split in two.
(t/f) In the 1912 campaign, Wilson's "New Freedom" favored a socially activist government and preserving large regulated trusts, while Roosevelt's "New Nationalist" favored small enterprise and breaking up a big business by antitrust action.
(t/f) Wilson believed that the president should provide national leadership by appealing directly to the people.
(t/f) Wilson successfully used his popular appeal to push through progressive reforms of the tariff, monetary systems, and trusts.
(t/f) Wilson's progressive outlook showed itself clearly in his favorable treatment of blacks.
(t/f) Wilson attempted to reverse the big-stick and dollar-diplomacy foreign policies of Roosevelt and Taft, especially in Latin America.
(t/f) Wilson consistently refused to intervene militarily anywhere in the Caribbean.
(t/f) In his policy toward the revolutionary Mexican government of Huerta, Wilson attempted towalk a middle line between recognition and intervention.
(t/f) The mediation of three Latin American nations saved Wilson from a full-scale war with Mexico.
(t/f) General Pershing's expedition was an attempt to put the pro-American faction into power.
(t/f) In the early days of World War I, more Americans sympathized with Germany than with Britain.
(t/f) The American economy benefited greatly from supplying goods to the Allies.
(t/f) After the Lusitania's sinking, the Midwest and West favored war with Germany, while the East generally favored attempts at negotiation.
(t/f) After the sinking of the Sussex, Wilson successfully pressured Germany into stopping submarine attacks against neutral shipping.
(t/f) In the 1916 campaign, Wilson's slogan was "He Kept Us Out of War," while his opponent Hughes tried to straddle the issue of a possible war with Germany.
Roosevelt wanted the federal government to regulate the economy and promote social welfare, while Wilson wanted to restore economic competition and social equality.
The basic contrast between the two progressive candidates, Roosevelt and Wilson, was that
Taft and Roosevelt split the former Republican vote.
Wilson won the election of 1912 primarily because
his tendency to be inflexible and refuse to compromise
Wilson's primary weakness as a politician was
the tariffs, the banks, and the trusts
The "triple wall of privilege" that Wilson set out to reform consisted of
a federal income tax
During the Wilson adminstration, Congress exercised the authority granted by the newly enacted Sixteenth Amendment to pass
the Federal Trade Commission
The new regulatory agency created by the Wilson administration in 1914 that attacked monopolies, false advertising, and consumer fraud was
agricultural and labor organizations
While it attacked business trusts, the Clayton Anti-Trust Act exempted from antitrust prosecution
establishing a publicly controlled Federal Reserve Board with regional banks under bankers' control
Wilson effectively reformed the banking and financial system by
Wilson's progressive measures substantially aided all of the following groups except
a refusal to recognize the legitimacy of General Huerta's regime
Wilson's initial attitude toward the Mexican revolutionary government was
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile
The threatened war between the United States and Mexico in 1914 was avoided by the mediation of
the killing of American citizens in New Mexico by "Pancho" Villa
General Pershing's expedition into Mexico came as a particular response to
the German invasion of neutral Belgium
The sympathy of a majority of Americans for the Allies and against Germany was strengthened by
cease from sinking merchant and passenger ships without warning
After the Lusitania, Arabic, and Sussex sinkings, Wilson successfully pressured the German government to
"He kept us out of war."
Wilson's most effective slogan in the campaign of 1916 was
Bull Moose
Four-footed symbol of Roosevelt's Progressive third party in 1912
Socialist Party
A fourth political party, led by a former labor union, that garnered nearly a million voted in 1912
New Freedom
Wilson's political philosophy of restoring democracy through trust-busting and economic competition
Federal Reserve
A twelve-number agency regulatory commission designed to oversee the banking system under a new federal law of 1913
Federal Trade Commission
New presidentially appointed regulatory commission designed to prevent monopoly and guard against unethical trade practices
Agtron Anti-Trust Act
Wilsonian law that tried to curb business monopoly while encouraging labor and agricultural organization
Railway Labor Act
Wilsonian reform law that established an eight-hour day for railroad workers
Troubled Caribbean island nation where a president's murder led Wilson to send in the marines and assume American control of the police and finances
ABC Powers
Term for the three Latin American nations whose meditation prevented war between the United States and Mexico in 1914
Central Powers
World War I alliance headed by Germany and Austria-Hungary
The coalition of powers—led by Britain, France, and Russia—that opposed Germany and its supporting nations in World War I.
New underwater weapon that threatened neutral shipping and apparently violated traditional norms of international law.
Large British passenger liner whose sinking in 1915 prompted some Americans to call for war against Germany.
Sussex Pledge
Germany's highly conditional agreement in 1916 not to sink passenger and merchant vessels without warning
Key electoral state where a tiny majority for Wilson tipped the balance against Hughes in 1916
Thomas Woodrow Wilson
Southern-born intellectual who pursued strong moral goals in politics and the presidency
Theodore Roosevelt
Energetic progressive and vigorous nationalist who waged a third-party campaign in 1912 but refused to do so again in 1916
Samuel Gompers
Labor leader who hailed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act as the "Magna Carta of labor"
Louis D. Brandeis
Leading progressive reformer and the first Jew named to the U.S. Supreme Court
Virgin Islands
Caribbean territory purchased by the United States from Denmark in 1917
General Huerta
Mexican revolutionary whose bloody regime Wilson reused to recognize and who nearly ended up fighting the United States in 1914
Venustiano Carranza
Huerta's successor as Mexican president, who took aid form the United States but strongly resisted American military intervention in Mexico
Tampico and Vera Cruz
Port cities where clashes between Mexicans and American military forces nearly led to war in 1914
"Pancho" Villa
Mexican revolutionary whose assault on American citizens and territory provoked a U.S. expedition into Mexico
John Pershing
Commander of the American military expedition into Mexico in 1916-1917
Small European nation whose neutrality was violated by Germany in the early days of World War I
Small European nation in which an Austro-Hungarian heir was killed, leading to the outbreak of World War I
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Autocratic ruler who symbolized ruthlessness and arrogance to many pro-Allied Americans
Caribbean nation where Wilson sent Americans marines in 1915
Charles Evans Hughes
Narrowly unsuccessful presidential candidate whose campaign was plagued by confusion on the issue of American policy toward Germany
5, 2, 1, 4, 3
Putting Things in Order
Allowed Wilson to win a minority victory in the election of 1912
(cause/effect) The split between Taft and Roosevelt
Helped push through sweeping reforms of the tariff and the banking system in 1913
(cause/effect) Wilson's presidential appeals to the
public over the heads of Congress
Finally established an effective national banking system and a flexible money supply
(cause/effect) The Federal Reserve Act
Nullified progressive Wilsonian measures dealing with labor unions and child labor
(cause/effect) Conservative justices of the Supreme Court
Caused Wilson to send in U.S. marines to restore order and supervise finances
(cause/effect) Political turmoil in Haiti and Santo Domingo
Created constant political instability south of the border and undermined Wilson's hopes for better U.S. relations with Latin America
(cause/effect) The Mexican revolution
Provoked General Pershing's punitive expedition into Mexico
(cause/effect) "Pancho" Villa's raid on Columbus, New Mexico
Cause most Americans to sympathize with the Allies rather than the Central Powers
(cause/effect) America's close cultural and economic ties with Britain
Caused President Wilson and other outraged Americans to demand an end to unrestricted submarine warfare
(cause/effect) Germany's sinking of the Lusitania, Arabic, and Sussex
Enabled the Democrats to win a narrow presidential victory in the election of 1916
(cause/effect) Wilson's apparent success in keeping American at peace through diplomacy
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