Mrs. Maynard's AP Psychology Class- Chapter 8 Learning Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Associative Learning
Learning that certain events occur together
The view the psychology should be objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
Unconditioned Response
In classical conditioning, the unlearned naturally ocurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response
Conditioned Response
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
The initial stage in classical conditioning, the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an US=S so that the neural stimulus comes to elicit a CR
The diminishing of a conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditions stimulus to elicit similar responses
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
Respondent Behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
Operant Behavior
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Law of Effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant Chamber
A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforced, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of the bar pressing or key pecking
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward a closer and closer approximations of a desired goal
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Primary Reinforcer
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Conditioned Reinforcer
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Partial Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time
Fixed ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Variable ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcemnt that reinforces a repsonse after an unpredictable number of responses
Fixed interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Variable interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Cognitive Map
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Overjustification Effect
The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do
Observational Learning
Learning by observing others
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Prosocial Behavior
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior
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