AP Euro Crash Course Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Humanism
-intrest in the study of classical texts, values, styles
-promoted a liberal arts education based on rhetoric, history, and classical times
-glorified the human body
Christian Humanism
- branch of Humanism (mostly found in N. Europe)
- like Humanism, but also valued religious piety and reform
vernacular
everyday language of a country
(ex. Martin Luther promoted having bibles and church services in the "vernacular" as opposed to Latin)
new monarchs
-established professional armies
- centralized power in bureacracies
- negotiated new relationships with the Catholic Church
(ex. Ferdinand/Isabella, Henry VII, Louis XI)
taille
-direct tax on peasantry in France
-major source of monarchial income
reconquista
-Christian "reconquest" of Muslims in Spain
-ended in 1492 with the conquest of Granada
indulgence
- certificate bought from the Catholic Church which would insure that you (or a loved one) would have a lessened (or completely relieved) sentence in purgatory before entering Heaven
- MAJOR source of Church income
Anababtist
- insisted on adult baptism
- wanted complete separation of church and state, in separate religious communities
- hated by both Protestants and Catholics
predestination
- God has always known who will go to Heaven/Hell
- good works won't change where you end up
- developed by John Calvin
Huguenots
-French Calvinists (protestants)
politiques
-rulers who put political issues/unity above their own beliefs in order to do what is right for the country (ex. Elizabeth I of England, Henry IV of France)
Columbian Exchange
exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and people between the Old World and the New World
mercantilism
-economic system, closely regulated by government
-many exports, few imports
-parent country and colonies as a system, with little trade outside the system
-accumulation of gold/silver within country
putting-out system
- system where goods were made piece by piece within peoples homes
- pre-industrial revolution
(ex. textiles made by spinning/weaving wool in homes)
joint-stock company
-investors work together to establish a company
-often used to fund the establishment of colonies
absolutism
one ruler controls the entire government, alone
divine right of kings
- idea that rulers receive their right to rule from God
- no one should try to remove them from power, God wouldn't have brought them to power if they weren't capable
- kings should have power/rights comparable to those of a god
intendants
- French officials who supervised provinces
- brought up from the lower classes by the king, and therefore very loyal to the king
Fronde
rebellions in France in 1649-1652, which caused Louis XIV to build Versailles
robot
system of forced peasant labor, used in Eastern Europe
Junkers
nobility in Prussia, supported monarchy
scientific method
used inductive logic to come to conclusions, these conclusions could then be described by mathematical formulas.
philosophes
-stressed reason and freedom of expression
- wanted religious toleration and legal reforms
(ex. Voltaire)
Deism
- belief that God created the universe, but left it to be run by the laws of nature
-human reason would help them to discover these natural laws
-many philosophes were deists
general will
interest of the people as a whole
(developed by Jean-Jaques Rousseau
enlightened despotism
-when absolute rulers used enlightened principles in the ruling of their government
- supported religious toleration, economic prosperity
(ex. Joseph II, Catherine the Great)
enclosure movement
- British landlords "enclosed" the common land within their farms and used it to produce cash crops
- bad for peasants, good for nobility
-created fewer, but larger, farms
-contributed to agricultural revolution
agricultural revolution
-developed a more efficient and mechanistic system of agriculture
-began in The Netherlands, and moved to England before spreading to the rest of the continent
physiocrats
- French economic reformists in the 1700's
-criticized mercantilism, supported free trade
-led by Quesnay
invisible hand
- term developed by Adam Smith
- refers to the natural regulation of a free marketplace
parlements
regional courts in France, dominated by nobles
Girondins
-moderate republican party in France
-wanted to extend the French revolution
Jacobins
-radical republican party during French Revolution
-led by Robespierre, Marat (bath-tub guy), Danton
- "the mountain"
Sans-culottes
-working people of Paris (characterized by workers' pants)
-supported radical politics
levée en masse
French policy of conscripting all males to the army
Thermidorian Reaction
- reaction against the radical French Revolution
- ended Reign of Terror
-began age of the Directory
legitimacy
principle that rulers driven from their thrones should be restored (Congress of Vienna returned Bourbons to power in France)
balance of power
strategy where small countries band together to match/surpass the strength of a larger country (major principle of Congress of Vienna)
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