AP Euro Fascism/WWII Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dictator Qualities
"Permanent Revolution," created problems to promote unity, focus on nationalism
Failure of Democracy
Great Depression, no history of self government (Balkan states)
Fascism
Anti-Socialist, anti democratic, Extremely Nationalistic, capitalistic, glorification of military and war, focus on UNITY--> Italy, Germany, (spain...)
NEP
issued after civil war. Allowed for small businesses to function but kept large industries, such as banks and railroads, nationalized. Allowed for peasants to keep any surplus of crops after a government quota had been met--> gave Lenin peasant's support.
USSR constitution
Wrote by Lenin. Confirmed that people would vote for their leaders (really had no effect, because all candidates were communist...). Divided USSR into 15 republics, with Russia as the largest and most dominant in terms of decision making. These republics corresponded to the 15 major ethnicities in the USSR. Provided no clear rules for succession.
Comintern
Organization that promoted communism throughout the world. Created by Lenin.
Stalin vs Trotsky
Trotsky: believed it was the USSR's duty to promote communism worldwide, criticized the NEP. Stalin: believed USSR should focus only on themselves (seen as more nationalistic), used Trotsky's criticism to make him appear disloyal
The Goss Plan
the government controlled all property that could be profitable.
Five Year Plans
designed to turn USSR into industrial power. Returned to a planned/command economy where government controlled all production. Forced peasants into collectivization. Led to Russia becoming the world's 3rd largest industrial power in 10 years.
Collectivization
Created by Five Year plans. Forced peasants to work on huge state-owned farms and disallowed them to continue to sell surpluses. Designed to make farming more efficient and and dissuade peasants from becoming capitalists.
Kulacs
Originally peasants who were "better off," this term came to be applied to anyone who opposed collectivization.
Gulac System
Government controlled forced labor camps.
War Communism
Issued by Lenin during civil war. Government nationalized all productive segments of society to mobilize red army. Heavily opposed by peasants--> had just gotten land, only to be taken by government. Replaced with NEP after war.
Great Purges
Mid-1930s. 8 million arrested as potential enemies. first targeted military- 35,000 officers replaced by new officers-->completely loyal army. Also purged old Bolsheviks.
Lateran Agreement
Mussolini's agreement with the pope in which he granted the vatican city independence in return for the pope's support
Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler's failed attempt to overthrow the Weimar republic
Mein Kampf
Hitler's vision of the world. 1) Aryan Supremacy. 2) Pan Germanism. 3) Lebensraum- germany should expand to the east. 4) Fuhrer- leader with absolute power. Jews and communists were main enemies (fascist tendency to create an enemy..)
Enabling Act
Made Hitler dictator of Germany for 5 years
Nuremburg Laws
Deprived Jews of social and economic rights. Many jews left Germany in response.
Hitler's Steps to War
1) Withdraws from LON 2) establishes draft 3) creation of Luftwaffe and other OFFENSIVE weapons 4) Hitler moves into Rhineland 5) Testing military in SCW 6) Annexation of Austria 6) Occupied Sudetenland (Munich conference...) 7) Takes over rest of Czechoslovakia 8) Invasion of Polland
Rome Berlin Axis
Japan, Italy, and Germany. All want territory and are anti-democratic. Japan and Germany are anti-communist
Reasons for British Appeasement
Guilt, Pacifism, Communism was seen as the greatest threat... NOT germany
Nazi Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Hitler didnt want a two-front war. Each promised the other that if one got in a war, the other would remain neutral. Secret protocol- called for territorial division of eastern Europe. Hitler--> most of Poland; Stalin--> rest of Poland + Balkans
Blitzkrieg
3 Phases- 1) Arial Bombardment 2) Heavy artillery 3) Infantry
Sitzkrieg
end of 1939- beginning of '40. Nothing happened- winter offered resistance to Hitler's mobility
Lend-Lease Act
US offered aid to Allies. "all short of war."
New Order
Hitler's system of racial supremacy.
Turning Points
1) Soviets broke German lines at Stalingrad. 2) Allied victory in N. Africa.
Invasion of Germany
Soviet army advanced west (liberating countries as they went) while Allied advanced eastward. Met in Berlin
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