Antebellum America - Hist. 122ac Flashcards

Terms Definitions
(Late 1810s-1815) One part of the fantasy ideal in America in 1815 Essentially the ideal of what American soil offered. S: It relates to the foundation of Antebellum America. Beginning in 1815, this view is intertwined with the republican ideology which also developed during the same time period
Republican Ideology
(Late 1810s-1815) American concept of "work hard and you will earn what you deserve." Work hard and you will earn what you deserve; Honest, decent people who could not be bought because they lived for their own exertions . S: Republican ideology represents the start of the antebellum period, post the Revolutionary war and colonial time.
(Late 1810s-1815) By the time new american nation declared itself in 1776, the founding fathers were assuming the land was theirs. What Jefferson described as the Indians who were inhabiting the land, and the expectancy the Americans had towards that land and how they shall simply inherit it from the 'dying off' Native Americans. S: Similar to republican ideology and the cornucopia concept, expectancy sets the path for the antebellum period and the step forwards in Indian removal, civilization programs, and eventually the trail of tears.
Fee Simple
(Late 1810s-1815) A radical change from land ownership in Europe. Hereditary estates were eliminated. Cheap land became a commodity, transformed the market. This was a major component of republican ideology. S: This unencumbered cheap land made land a commodity and a source of independence, as well as a major component of republican ideology where one gets land cheaply and does what one pleases with it.
1785 Land Ordinance
(1785) Created by Thomas Jefferson, it was the mapping of the Northwest territory where the nation's western territories would act as a network of sub-divisions; The grid was thought to be used for a democratic republic that was not restricted by ancient laws or families ties; A blank slate where Europeans could come; Blueprint for national real estate market - land was easily bought and sold without ever seeing it. Also the land wasn't constrained by ancient laws or family customs. S: It was a useful concept for republicanism and liberalism as well as dealing with the overall change regarding the idea of land
(Late 1810s-1815) Belief that people, goods, and ideas need to be free to move about; the ideology of mobility. S: Relates to the changing ideology about land as well as the republican ideology which encompasses
Market Revolution
(Late 1810s-1815) People's lives transformed by market trade. 90% of Americans were farmers but the value of their crops were determined by long distance markets. For example, the market for cotton in europe single handedly determined agriculture and slavery in the south. Also market value was becoming S: part of owning land which created a paradox: cheap land was made a commodity yet the republican ideology made land unique. In order to make land free to buy land loses it's uniqueness.
Public Lands
(Late 1810s-1815) Came from all kinds of sources, one in particular was the Louisiana Purchase (1803, bought from the French); S: Important because it extended to territory of US, but it put over half a billion acres under government ownership;Federal government affected the economy
Louisiana Purchase
1803, The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size. S: Example of public lands
War of 1812
(1812-1814) War fought between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with the American trade with France; French and Indian war (7 year war) shattered the relationship between british and france, which screwed up the support of indians
Different tribes all share their own identity of redness, a sense of belonging to a shared body. War of 1812 had negative effect on Indian tribes collectively. S: There is a reoccurring image of American fronterism/ westward movement/ expansion of boundaries throughout this time period and parallel to those ideas is the image of pushing Indians out.
Civilization Program
Americans conquered Indian land and declared Indian people must be civilized to make them citizens and include them in American life. Americans saw Indian culture as lacking agriculture, reading/ writing, gender roles, criminal punishment; creating a revolution in Indian life for possession. S: Some accommodated, some resisted but regardless had negative affect on Indian group as a whole. Also seen as American attempt for expansion, weakening of Indian power.
Shawnee Prophet
(1805)Shawnee Prophet had dream, preach spiritual renewal; rejected imported goods, European goods, private property, Whiskey. S: Known as spiritual leader of Pan Indianism.
(1811) Older brother of Shawnee Prophet, built political movement designed to avoid ceding land to US. Heart of ideology was a vision of different tribes coming together as a unified tribe/ race. This requires all Indian tribes to collectively agree- bold vision. Hoped to use this to build block of resistance that would appeal to British. 1811, Tecumseh signs treaty in Alabama with all Indian tribes. 1811 earthquake hits Midwest, prophecy is proven. Civil war develops in Creek County between accomodationists and pan Indian followers who preach resistance. William Henderson attacks Tecumseh's town, Battle of Tippecanoe. S: Tecumseh is responsible for building, precipitating, and triggering War of 1812 with British. Tecumseh becomes British commander, giving Britain home-base in US.
(early 1810s-20s) Realm where creeks were fighting (Redstick War), people who opposed the culture and US authority, and thus carried red clubs. S: This led to the extermination of the indians
Five Civilized Tribes (Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles)
The Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Seminoles. Had embraced Christianity and agriculture S: were removed from their lands by the Indian Removal Act.
Cherokee Syllabary
(early 1810s-20s) The written language that Sequoyah created. Each syllable is represented by a symbol
Indian Removal Act
(1830) Andrew Jackson used the opportunity to kick out all indians, even those who aligned with him
& 1828 was discovery of gold on indian territory
For Jackson, indian removal was a national security priority
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
(1832) Ruled that Cherokee were a "domestic dependent nation" and deserved federal protection from state encroachment by Georgia; ignored by President Jackson. S: the last obstacle of US expansion and absolute power of federal government over courts and states rights.
Tail of Tears
(1838) Forced relocation of 17,000 Cherokees to designated Indian territory (Oklahoma territory) 4,000 died en route. S: Despite attempt to assimilate into white society, 5 civilized tribes were forced to leave due to Jackson's Indian Removal Act.
Frontier Radicalism
After the war much land was opened up to the west which the majority of was taken from the native Americans due to it being fertile and good for crops. S: Caused a change in society with the use of slavery in farming cotton and a change in the american economy
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams won after Henry Clay gave his support to Adams, securing his Presidency. When Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state, Jackson's supporters raged that a corrupt bargain had cheated Jackson of presidency.
Rather than having a formal money prior to the civil war the form of currency was bank notes which were papers that stated how much money a private bank owed you. The note was worth a amount of gild or silver rather than money. At the time no one was required to expect money.
Second Bank of US
(1832) The predominant reason that the Second Bank of the United States was chartered was that in the War of 1812, the U.S. experienced severe inflation and had difficulty in financing military operations. Subsequently, the credit and borrowing status of the United States were at their lowest levels since its founding; Like the First Bank, the Second Bank was also chartered for 20 years, and also failed to get its charter renewed. It existed for 5 more years as an ordinary bank before going bankrupt in 1841.
Nicholas Biddle
(1830s) Went to Pen at age 10 and Princeton at age 13; President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Congressional Caucus
(1820s) An association or members of Congress based on party, interest, or social group such as gender or race. Prior to the 1824 election Older members of the republican party choose who they wanted for president.
Bank Veto
(1832) Jackson's response to the Bank of the United States recharter; started much controversy. Released a veto statement that was a bitter attack. Said Unfair monopoly. Reporters thought it was outrageous. Printed thousands of copies to ruin his position
Deposit Removal
(1833) Jackson ordered all federal deposits in the bank withdrawn. In retaliation, Nicholas Biddle began calling in loans from across the country, engineering a financial crisis. Biddle believed that this would highlight the need for a central bank. S: However, the move backfired, when angry businessmen and farmers started blaming the bank.
Panic of 1837
(1837) When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. S: A panic ensued; Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
David Crockett
United States frontiersman and Tennessee politician who died at the siege of the Alamo (1786-1836); S: He was in congress from 1827 to 1835 and ssed campaign literature designed to discredit Jackson and make himself as a political candidate. His opposition to the Indian removal act made him difficult to win re-election and as such he never fulfilled political ambition.
Davy Crockett Almanacs
(1839) book about Davy Crocket super hero which kills large beasts and takes on their qualities often against Indians; S: opposite of Crocket himself.
Nimrod Wildfire
From the 1831 play "The Lion of the West" and the name of the character that was a version of Davy Crocket. Said to be half man and half alligator. Even before the script for the play was finished, Nimrod is identified as Crocket. He himself attended the theatre and bowed in the front of the audience. Made Crocket appear as if he was the character.
Sam Patch
(1800-1829) Known as "The Yankee Leaper", became the first famous American daredevil after successfully jumping from a raised platform into the Niagara River near the base of Niagara Falls in 1829.
Transportation Revolution
(1815-1830) Period of 1815-1830 where steam to shipping was introduced; Robert Fulton, 1807 - first steam boat journey took place in 1815; Essentially, steam would prove very important to the US and its economy. S: Revolutionary development is less than steamboat, and more the canal; artificial waterways powered the force of the American economy; Introduction of steam shipping; Surfaces upon which improving vehicles travel; Water was faster than land and sped the circulation of goods across the country; brought more people and places into the world of trade
Huge change for America in the 19th century that completely turned their economy around; State governments and entrepreneurs embarked on a canal building spree post war of 1812; As late as 1820, the total mileage of canals is less than 100; In less than 3 decades, more than 3,000 miles are carved out for canals; This was done largely with public funding; not federal funding, but state funding; S: A canal network of long distance commercial connect was created which contributed to the overall transportation revolution.
Erie Canal
(1825) A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West. Access to goods from Europe, S. America, Africa that do not have to be transported on land; Largest public celebration in any city, up to that point. S: The cost to ship things dropped; Wheat was suddenly a huge commodity; Raised land value -- grew 91%
Rochester & Buffalo; The very look of the landscape was changing; Canals also contributed to where people chose to live; Market expansion along the new transportation routes allowed for the transformation of the US from rural to urban
(1800s-1820s) Change from the US as an agricultural society to an urban one; changed through the introduction of the canal
Time Lags
Big impact from the introduction of canals, time lags refer to the increased time it took for news to travel across the country. S: Because of the industrialization of the 1820s, with the introduction of the Erie Canal, etc, time lags were able to be shortened tremendously and induce urbanization.
Postal system
(1790-1840) Steady rise in use from 1790 to 1840. Federally enacted; Facilitating social exchanges and broadcasting the news; Federal government controlled it; Designed to improve commerce but it revolutionizes American life, allowing timely communication between people. Isolation is made less poignant.
Jacksonian Democracy
(1830s-1854) What historians call this time period - active engagement in government/politics by the middle/poor classes; occurred and caused Jackson's election, he was the beneficiary of these changes. S: He symbolized and articulated that the belief and bodies of men, ought to be making political decisions
Part of new ideas, practices, and institutions that spread power to people who previously had not held it
Universal Manhood Suffrage
The idea that one got to vote by being a man; manhood had multiple connotations, but in the context of voting man meant not being female, slave, or child; barred people under the age of 21 or even 25, and on top of that life time was shorter, so most of the population was excluded by age
NY State constitution of 1821
(1821) Extended the right to vote to all adult male citizens who: paid state taxes, served in militia, worked on highways
2nd American Party System
(1828 to 1854) Rival of democrats and whigs (from the early 1830s-1850s) these parties would compete nationally and state wide; The system was characterized by rapidly rising levels of voter interest beginning in 1828, as demonstrated by election day turnout, rallies, partisan newspapers, and a high degree of personal loyalty to party. The major parties were the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans and other opponents of Jackson. S: Their rivalry determined american structure of political debate; The Second Party System reflected and shaped the political, social, economic and cultural currents of the Jacksonian Era, until succeeded by the Third Party System.
(1828-1856) Political party lead by Andrew Jackson from 1828 to 1856. Campaigned against strong central government and fought to end elitism.
(1828) Members of first "third party" in the United States, formed in 1828 in New York; feared the Freemasons were too powerful and wanted to take over the country, and viewed the Freemasons as an elitist group; mostly made up of "ordinary citizens", whigs made connection to this movement to attack jackson and buren implying they were part of a conspiracy; response to resentment of freemasonry
(1834) Conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin;
Mass electoral participation
(1830-1840) Because the Whigs and Jacksonians were competitive, it helped to contribute to turn out. S: Led to an ideology of popularity sovereignty that Tocqueville criticizes
Election of 1840
(1840) William Henry Harrison's election; Where the Whigs won (1 of 2 times)
Partisan Press
Major publishing network each party orchestrated, flooded American cities and towns; every major capital had a whig and a democrat paper
Paper ballots
(1830-1840s) Didn't shield people's vote from influence; were printed by the parties themselves; the parties give you a ballot, and you stick it in a box;
Parties would stage rallies and demonstrations; one gathering in 1840, a crowd was estimated at 100,000
When you ran for an election, you were supposed to buy drinks for the crowd. S: Some of the reason why many Americans as deeply corrupt, Ex: Election of 1864
(First half of 19th century) U.S. was 'classless' before the civil war; no socialist uprising; S: antebellum period was a significant time of class formation; groups of people who occupy a distinctive position in the same economy; Ex: people who share an articulated awareness of the distinctive economic positions
(First half of 19th century) Not about factory or machines, but new ways of organizing labor; urban employers, master craftsmen divided new ways to make the labor process more efficient and profitable; these methods wound up transforming the customary patterns of work and leisure
Refers to the process by which work tasks are broken into simple routines requiring little training to perform. usually accompained by the sue of machinery to replace labor wherever possible and increased managment control over workers
Putting-Out System
Dealt with industrial time and workplace attitude; new industrial innovation made piecework, or putting-out, more compatible as it didn't require people to work in the same place. Brought forth an informal attitude towards the US requirement of a workplace. S: It changed the old work process of leniency to a new emphasis of temporal precision and managerial control.
Industrial Time
(Early 19th century) Under this new regime of managerial control, the old formal work day gave way to a new day organized around the precise mechanism of time; No clocks before, lots of drinking and having fun; S: Now, under industrial time, disrupted the natural rhythms of pre-modern work; people cared about time, being organized, and profitable/efficient; real introduction of commonality of watches
Waltham-Lowell System
(1814) In 1814, the first integrated textile factory; although they were technologically integrated S:this mill town was an a-typical example of how work was changing prior to the Civil War
St. Monday
Not coming in to work on Monday due to being drunk the night before, and not having an orderly work life
Vertical v. Horizontal Affiliation
With the introduction of a wage system, there was a replacement of vertical affiliations with horizontal affiliations. A worker would identify less with his master and more with another worker in a different trade who shares the same position in the economy. This was more true in the South than in the North. This was part of the cumulative effect of the rise of the wage system. S: Other effects of the rise of the wage system included a breakdown of the old craft system, a breakdown of the workers sense of control, and it served as a link between work and republican culture.
Ten-Hour Day
(1830s) Ten hour movement during the 1830s
Journeymen Tailors Strike
(1836) Judge Ogden Edwards declared that unions were illegal. S: This was the turning point in the use of state force to overturn collective powers
General Trade Union
(1833) The General Trade Union of New York City was formed in 1833 by delegates of nine craft trades. Workers responded to the new regime of manegerial control on the workday and the introduction of the wage system by organizing labor unions. One such union was GTU. GTU was responsible for a surge in labor militancy between 1833 and 1836
Wage Labor
Wage work became much more common because of decline of slavery, indentured servitude; big change in nature of work; stopped providing shelter as part of pay for work; more free forms of labor, but also decline of craft tradition where master craftsmen set tradition; a system of payment whereby workers are compensated on the bases of a wage not tied to the quality of the raw materials, accidents, or other exigencies in the production process
Sectional Differences
Section difference: Nature and origin between N and S; different pattern of residents, lower rates of immigration to the South; Economic differences; Political differences (less elaborate and active in the South); Cultural difference that were rooted in lots of things
Bound labor
(1800s) Range of labor arrangements where the person who performs it does so in a context in a long term obligation to a master Many places in the US bound labor had seriously declined or disappearing
Indentured servitude (one kind of bound service) was less and less common by 1800 as were coercive apprenticeships. S: Chattel slavery took over and persisted
Gradual Abolition
Gradual abolition was the dominant form of legal emancipation. By 1805, every Northern state abolished slavery to some degree. Southerns needed national government to protect slavery. By 1820, only 19,000 slaves in North but ⅕ million slaves in south. By 1840, twice as many white people in North than South. S: Signifies growing difference in population, economy, and geography of 2 regions, disparity grows especially in politics.
Stereotype, stock character; Would be a gentleman of leisure attracted to horse racing, dueling, chivalry; Anglicans in Virginia, very leading social figures; southern; Culture: traditional, even feudal, chivalric, romantic, agrarian, barbaric, self-indulgent
Stock characters, stereotype; aggressive, individualistic guy, sophisticated with money and numbers; Northern; Culture: modern, calculating, practical, manipulative, moralistic, self-control
Affairs of honor
(early 1800s-1830s) Also known as duels, were a recognized code of honor between gentlemen that climaxed in a dual. Brought to US from naval officers during war. Northern cities did this but stopped after 1804 when Vice President died in dual. Belief behind affairs of honor were that a true man doesn't let law do dirty work and honor point of this was to confirm man of honor. Men who would be willing to risk it all to prove reputation and their manhood of honor
Honor Culture
(1830s) Honor culture is important is understand southern white society and slavery. The experience of slaves was dictated by culture of honor because punishment in public was not only to secure obedience but to embarrass and create a spectacle of shame designed by people who had control.
Bible Belt
Beginning of 19th century, baptist and Methodist revivals made leeway in south, creating the emergence of bible belt. Characterized by enthusiastic convergence and frequently blurred racial divide between masters and followers. By 1835, Bible Belt became left threatening to culture of honor. Significance in class is partly due to its relationship to honor culture
(1830s) Urbanization relates to the populating of cities. The population of the United States began moving into cities beginning in the 1830s. Cities were sites of trade and commerce, and people would move to cities to take part in the market. Between 1830 and 1860, the percentage of people living in US cities becomes significant for the first time, 1 in 5 people lived in cities. City growth was self-perpetuating, the bigger the city, the more people would move there. Urbanization was also helped along by migrations of freed slaves and European immigrants.
Urban Growth
Antebellum America experienced a boom in the growth of cities that was a result of urbanization as well as the market revolution. Cities along the Erie Canal grew due to their proximity to the trade route. Two examples of urban growth were Rochester and Buffalo, NY. New York City's population expanded across the island of Manhattan as well
Urban Proliferation
There weren't a lot of citifies in US in 1815; new cities will emerge (Rochester, Chicago, etc)
10 antebellum cities
(1800s-1830s) NY, Boston, Brooklyn, Cincinnati, St. Louis, New Orleans, Chicago, SF, Baltimore, Philadelphia
Fixed-route transit
(1820s) Form of transportation where people don't necessarily know the driver on a fixed route. Did not exist in American cities before the Antebellum period. First introduced in NYC with the omnibus in 1827. Strangers did not have to know anyone or the city to navigate the city. Social institution where communication was unnecessary. Reiterated the daily contact with strangers
(1827) First form of transportation invented by Abraham Bower; like a streetcar pulled by horse; followed a fixed route; public; By 1829, Bower was running regularly; by 1837 there were 108 omnibuses; mass urban transportation
(1832) Aka railway car, would become the dominant form of transportation by middle of century; intra-city transportation; it too, was a horse drawn conveyance; Introduced in 1832 by John Mason who decided to operate these stage coaches on an inter-city line
Commercial night life
Along with the growth of cities came a demand for a commercial nightlife where city dwellers could engage in the sporting life. George Foster portrays nightlife as a male dominated aspect of urban culture.
Commercial Sex
Expanded range of commercial exchanges in which sexual pleasure, information, and representation. Gaslight city is saturated with sex. Prostitution was a much more conspicuous part of the antebellum city. Prior, it was a minimal activity, by the 2nd quarter of the 19th century, situation had begun to change. More and more people were attending brothels, moved to the respectable and wealthy. Women were profoundly affected by working in the brothels. In NY, estimated 50,000 women were working in the sex trade. Moral reformers characteristically inflated numbers to scare, police lowered numbers to lower suspicion of crime.
(1816) Baltimore became the first American city to light its city streets with gas by night. NY later adopted them as well. In Earlier periods, city streets were largely empty by nightfall. S: Outdoor illumination changed the landscape for a growing market of late-night entertainment.
Seduction and Abandonment
(1830s) These were the two popular representations why women turned to the sex trade. George Foster describes two stories in which two prostitutes faced these pressures and turned to the flesh industry as a way to get by. This, however, was far from the truth as most women who were arrested for prostitution said they had gone into the business by choice.
Mass Media
(1830) Any system of communication that derives its source of power from the amount of unknown people receive the message at the same time. The two forms of mass media were the cheap daily newspaper and the popular theater. Both contributed to the experiences of mass society
Vernacular Characters
Social types drawn from the ranks of ordinary folk; S: Allowed different play-writes to re-produce a recognizable form of entertainment
(19th century) Indian play where Forrest was dressed up; Play re-tells King Philips's war and sympathized with natives; Successful and most widely produced play throughout 19th century
Boisterous Audiences
Audience members would shout, wander around, get drunk, spit, breast feed. When spectators didn't approve of a performance, they would yell and throw things. When they did like the performance, they would often have the actors do a scene twice. The lights were left on, making the audience part of the performance
Third Tier
Sex workers let in for free into the third tier. Prostitutes were encouraged in the third tier, like saloons and polling places, male dominated
Newspaper Postal Rate
Supported the newspaper business, postal rate subsidized newspapers and political speech to spread throughout the country. Initially newspapers were conceived as political instruments not about cities in which the readers lived; Postal rate: 18 1/2 cents to send simple letter to NY city to Troy NYCost 1 cent, however, to mail newspapers
Associated Press
(1846) Formed in 1846, harnessed the power of the telegraph to share information
Penny Press
23 year old printer, Ben Day, introduced the NY Sun (small paper); within month, it was more popular than anything else; Dozens of the cheap dailies emerged and disappeared - but a few survived and made a major imprint; on the pace and style of news throughout the U.S. Ny Ex: NY Sun (1833), NY Herald (1835), NY Tribune (1841)
Helen Jewett
(1836) Sex worker murdered by Richard Robertson, huge audience populated by young men in support of Robertson, acquitted by Ogden Edwards, same judge as the Journeymen's Strike. S: Real importance of this had to do with the press, four days after the murder, the press was filled with stories of Helen Jewett, sensational stories of sex and conspiracy, fascination with violence. Really gave the penny press center stage, privileged source of information, source of mass appeal. Also gave them the opportunity to discuss larger issues such as social equality
Public's Right to Know
Idea that reporters and newspapers represented the people and therefore had to give the public as much information as possible. They claimed the right to speak for public opinion. Quite radical because these papers had not been around for a long time, but they had gained enough readership to claim to know the public opinion.
Moon Hoax
(1835) Creating new problems of whether you can believe everything you can read in the papers. The Sun printed articles about life on the moon, detailed descriptions of the variety of life. Was a fabrication of Richard Adams Locke, author of the Moon Hoax of 1835. During the height of the moon hoax, it increased the readership to make the paper one of the most read papers in the world. Encouraged readers to make their own conclusions
James G. Bennett
Wrote article about Helen Jewett's murder in The Herald; Napoleon of newspapers, racist and anti-abolitionists
New York Sun
(1833) One of first cheap dailies created by Benjamin Day
American Colonization Society
(1817) Colonization was an idea of sending black American slaves to Africa, to colonize Africa for America; Was somewhat popular and prestigious for a long period of time; united opponents and proponents of slavery who worked together; Part of goal was to spread christianity to africa thru these colonies of christianized slaves; country of liberia was founded in 1822 as a ACS colony; Slaveholders began to see the colonies as a slow road to emancipation in 'disguise'
David Walker
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt. free black who had moved from Carolina to Boston and became a dealer and clothing seller and used it to sell his work; Significance: First expression of black rage against the injustice and cruelty of slavery in U.S.; Set off a chain of arrests and security measures in South;
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Stands in contrast to gradualism; Antislavery ideology concerning the immediate moral ending of slavery and racial inequality S: Relates to both Garrison and Walker about the concept that abolition needed to be immediate and not gradual
The Liberator
(1831-1865) An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Nat Turner
(1831) Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God S: His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
Slavery had been explicitly been defended as long as people had been criticizing it; change in the way southerners defended slaveholding; spoke of slaveholding as a regrettable evil, necessary evil, or redeemable evil - but increasingly after 1831 others began to adopt the viewpoint that slavery was a 'positive good.' Rationale and profitable system; morally superior to other systems; slaves were better off than ancestors in Africa; Between 1800-1831, a few things changed: 1) international slave trade was abolished and took effect in 1808; raised the trade value of slaves in the upper South 2) Rise of anti-slavery ideology 3) Nat Turner
1832 Virginia Debate
(1832) What to do between pro and anti slavery uproar
Protestant Culture
American ideal regarding religion and being protestant. Penny press was manifestation of protestant culture - gave way to the highly literate culture that came along with the religion. Involved many other denominations
Much more centralized church organization; highly evangelical, went out and tried to recruit people; sent out circuit riders, preachers who went to remote populations among the frontier; fast growing denomination; by 1840s, methodists became largest protestant denomination in US
American Bible Society
Organization founded by Samuel J. Mills planning to put a bible in every frontier home between 1829 and 1830. Became one of the major broadcasting powers in the U.S. Because it made cheap bibles available all over the country; made bible reading a common feature of American experience; Still exists; typical of what gets called benevolent empire
Benevolent Empire
Cluster of protestant organizations - multi-denominational; headquarted in modern cities; National in scope; committed to evangelical ideals and reforms doing what other countries the government might have done; institutional face of main stream protestant Christianity in the U.S.
Circuit Riders
People who are methodist misionary who follow a regular route through an area to preach; Itinerant preachers, usually celibate men, would travel to rural communities and would preach the gospel, recruit converts, and create classes to reinforce message while preacher was on the road; by 1830, almost half a million Americans belonged to them
Cane Ridge
(1801) Where a large gathering of Protestants gathered and preached. 10,000 men, women, children, white and black went to Cane Ridge to hear dozens of ministers preaching the gospel. Second great awakening
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans; most closely identified with Charles Grandison Finney
Charles Grandison Finney
An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). Most successful evangelist in U.S.; Actually a lawyer first; had attended church very infrequently before he underwent a sudden conversion experience in 1821; Finney looked at NY as a world being re-made by erie canal; saw Americans uprooting themselves continually as Tocqueville observed; Work patterns removing young men from family; Decided on a massive evangelical campaign; Finney then moved to NY City where he began preaching to mass audiences in a theatre; He was credited for bringing about the conversion of 1/2 million souls; emotional appeal and message that human beings were moral free agents and could will about their own salvation; Also transformed the conversion experience to a public event; Induced by a public event that could compete with the new form of leisure and commercial entertainment;
Burned Over District
(1830-1831) Area of New York State along the Erie Canal that was constantly aflame with revivalism and reform; as wave after wave to fervor broke over the region, groups such as the Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites found support among the residents.
Much of religious enthusiasm of the time was based on the widespread belief that the world was about to end with the second coming of Christ; preacher William Miller gained tens of thousands of followers by predicting a specific date when the second coming would occur (didn't happen-Millerites will become Seventh Day Adventists)
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
(1830) Mormon church; established in 1830s; Appealed to neighbors and a town in Ohio, but was only a was a stop over, would gather in a new Zion in north western Missouri; smith decided to leave Ohio and in 1839 to Illinois; The Mormons faced persecution, for being clannish; In 1844, J.Smith was killed and so was his bro; by then Mormonism had become a sizable religion outside the mainstream of Christianity; Some of the early appeal can be understood in the context of social and economic farmers who were hoping to restore a world of patriarchy that was threatened by the Erie Canal; Oldest surviving non-Indian religion; At core, highly American religion; Mormonism placed America at the center of the geography - garden of Eden was located in Jackson County, Missouri; Christ had appeared on American soil;
City of refuge for Jews in America; Arch of the Biblical Noah had rested on a mountain of Ararat in Turkey, so he called his settlement that; significant in only in the fact that at the heart of growth industries of NYCity; Generally ignored and ridiculed; However, the fact that America was haven for ridiculed Jews became to materialize; another one of these 'visions' of world changing event; focused around the root of the Erie Canal
(1831) Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end. 1843, would be the last year of time. By April 18th, 1834; Made this claim by interpretation of book of Daniel; widespread Millennialism around him made this plausible; Miscalculation, but the advent would occur the following Yom Kippur; 7th day adventists;
Protestant Culture
Tallmadge Amendment
(1819) Prohibited the introduction of slavery or involuntary servitude, as well as stipulating that anyone already born a slave, would become free by age 25; basically banned slavery in the state of Missouri; All southern states voted against it; 78-76 passed; In the Senate, it was rejected; Tallmadge offered the amendment to block the disproportioned power to slave states; Southerners also saw it as a fight for power, thus voted against it Significance: Marked the rekindling over the balance of power between free and slave states; Was not about Missouri, but about the power of slave v. Free states in U.S. Southerners worried that a free state of Missouri would put the state of slavery in jeopardy - maintaining the slave states, would ensure slavery would never be outlawed;
Missouri Compromise
(1820) Jesse Thomas suggested a compromise; he proposed that Missouri would be allowed to entered as a slave state, but would be counter-balanced with a state as a free state. Cut Mass. In half; We'll admit Maine as a free slave; Thomas proposed that Missouri be only part of the Louisiana, 36-30, which corresponds to the southern boundary above which no slave states would be admitted; Passed by 3 Significance: These two components of the Missouri compromise are quite different; 1. Preserved the power in the senate by admitting new states in pairs, i.e., political balance 2. Made the future status of slavery contingent on geography
Gag Rule
(1835) Applied to all slavery petitions; required that any petition mentioning slavery, be tabled and not read, after being presented by title; Congress does not have to vote every time; Was controversial; Former President, John Quincy Adams, became the champion of the anti0gag rule movement and initially had constitutional objections; Turned Adams to a public abolitionist; S: 1836-1844, and effectively prevented anti-slavery views from being presented in Congress; Merged issues of civil liberties and abolitionist ideals
Charleston Lynch Men
(1835) Raided post office at night and confiscated the offending publications in the streets of Charleston before a crowd of 2,000; Pretty serious attack on U.S. Mail, federal offense; The Charleston lynch men had an ally in the White House, was President Jackson; Jackson instructed his post master general not to deliver the anti-slavery publications; Significance: Local post masters of the U.S. Were encouraged and directed to suppress mail and com a federal offense;
3/5 Rule
(1787) Feature of the constitution that protected slavery; states' populations will be measured by counting all the freemen and 3/5ths of the slaves; Significance: Artificially inflate the voting power of white southerners to as much as 50% in certain states; enormous effect - without the bonus voting power, Thomas Jefferson would not have become President and Virginia would not have become the largest state at the beginning of the antebellum period
Slave power
Insidious force in American politics and history in which a a small circle of rich slave holders manipulated the political system; Because what was evil according to the thesis written about it, was more the conspiracy scheming of the slave holding class, and less the injustice of treating another human being as property; An accusation of a conspiracy theory; Significance: the taking advantage of the free institutions of the republic (was the victim), not just the human chattel;
Counter-subversive rhetoric
Rhetoric that is designed to diffuse threats to subvert the integrity of the republic; the abolitionists were con artists duping a gullible nation; Both sides in this debate projected onto the other secret sexual sins, especially those of amalgamation (mixed race)
The death of Jonathan Cilley
(Born 1802, Died 1838) Member of US House of Representative from Maine (Dem). Died in office as a result of a duel with Congressman William Graves (Whig) from Kentucky.Cilley criticized newspaper article written by Grave's political ally, editor of New York Enquirer, James W. Webb for bias and unfair coverage of Congress.
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