AP Bio Chapter 44 Osmoregulation and Excretion Flashcards

nitrogenous wastes
Terms Definitions
Osmoregulation
How animals regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water
Excretion
How animals get rid of nitrogenous waste products of metabolism
Osmolarity
Total solute concentration as moles of solute per liter of solution
Osmoconformer
Animal that does not actively adjust internal osmolarity
Osmoregulator
Animal that must control its internal osmolarity
Stenohaline
Animals that are not tolerant of substantial changes in external osmolarity
Euryhaline
Animals that can withstand large fluctuations in external osmolarity.
Anhydrobiosis
Animals that can lose almost all of their body water and survive in a dormant state.
Transport epithelium
Layer(s) of epithelial cells that regulate solute movements and are essential components of osmotic regulation and metabolic waste disposal
Ammonia
NH3, a very toxic molecule due to its tendency to form strong acids through hydrogen bonds.
Urea
Substance produced in vertebrate liver by metabolic cycle that combines ammonia with CO2. Used by mammals, adult amphibians, sharks, and some fishes.
Uric acid
Substance used to dispose of ammonia by being excreted in a dry white paste. Used by insects, land snails, and many reptiles (birds).
Filtration
The passage of body fluid through selectively permeable membranes which forces small particles like salts, sugars, amino acids, and nitrogenous wastes into excretory system.
Filtrate
Fluid consisting of water and salts, sugars, amino acids, and nitrogenous wastes which will eventually, after more filtration, be excreted.
Selective reaborption
The cleansing of filtrate by re-adding some solutes to the body fluids through active transport.
Secretion
The deposit of unnecessary or undesirable solutes to the filtrate after filtration through active transport.
Protonephridum
Network of dead-end tubules without internal openings. They branch throughout the body and smallest branches are capped by flame bulbs.
Metanephridia
Type of tubular excretory system with internal openings that collect body fluids. Found in earthworms.
Malpighian tubules
Remove nitrogenous wastes and function in osmoregulation in insects and terrestrial arthropods. Open into the digestive tract and dead end at tips in circulatory fluid.
Renal artery
Artery that supplies kidney with blood
Renal vein
Vein that takes blood from the kidney
Ureter
Duct through which urine exits each kidney
Urinary bladder
Container in which urine resides until drained. Ureters lead into this.
Urethra
Tube that leads from urinary bladder to the outside of the organism (vagina in males or penis in males)
Renal cortex
Outer region of kidney
Renal medulla
Inner region of kidney
Nephron
Functional unit of vertebrate kidney - consists of a long tubule and ball of capillaries called the glomerulus
Glomerulus
Ball of capillaries which resides at the end of the nephron.
Bowman's capsule
Cup-shaped swelling at the end of a tubule which surrounds the glomerulus.
Cortical nephrons
80% of kidney's nephrons, with reduced loops of henle and reside in the renal cortex
Juxtamedullary nephrons
Nephrons with well-developed loops of henle, and extend deeply into renal medulla.
Afferent arteriole
Branch of renal artery that supplies an individual nephron with blood.
Efferent arteriole
Convergent capillaries at the exits of glomeruli.
Vasa recta
Capillaries that serve the loop of Henle.
Countercurrent multiplier systems
System in which liquids run against and next to each other, which expend energy to create concentration gradients.
Antidiuretic hormone
Hormone that, when released when the osmolarity of the blood drops below a certain level, causes the permeability of the epithelium in the kidney to water, which reduces urine volume in order to conserve water.
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
When blood pressure in afferent arteriole drops, this releases the enzyme renin which converts plasma proteins to angiotensin II
Angiotensin II
Raises blood pressure by constricting arterioles in order to reduce the amount of salt and water excreted in urine.
Aldosterone
Hormone that causes nephrons' distal tubes to reabsorb more sodium to increase blood volume and pressure.
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Complex feedback circuit that functions in homeostasis to conserve salt and water by regulating blood pressure.
Atrial natriuretic factor
Hormone that opposes RAAS by reducing blood pressure by inhibiting release of renin.
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