Chapter 35: An Introduction to Flowering Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Gametophyte
Microscopic in flowering plants' produce gametes by mitosis; haploid
Sporophyte
Large "plant" in flowering plants; produces spores by meiosis; diploid
Seed
Reproductive structure produced by flowering plants as the result of sexual reproduction
Sporophyte
Plant embryo is a ________ that lies dormant within a seed with a supply of stored food and a seed coat
Growth
Increase in size or weight
Development
Increase in number or organs, accompanied by differentiation
Meristem
Region of undifferentiated cells producing new tissues by cell division; from the Greek word "merizein" meaning "to divide"
Roots, Stems, and Leaves
What are the basic plant organs that contain several types of tissues?
Tissue
One or more types of specialized cells
Tissues
Cells turn into....
Organs
Tissues turn into....
Organ systems
Organs turn into....
Roots
Provide anchorage in the soil and foster efficient uptake of water and minerals
Stem
Produce leaves and branches and bear the reproductive structures
Leaves
Foliage leaves specialized for photosynthesis
Radicle
embryonic root; the first organ to emerge from germinating seed; provides water and minerals for growth
Hypocotyl
What produces Cotyledons?
Cotyledons
Hypocotyl produces what?
Edicots (Dicots)
2 seed leaves
Monocots
1 seed leaf
Endosperm
Provides food for early embryo growth
Shoot apical meristem (SAM)
Rapidly dividing cells the produce the shoot system (stems, leaves, and other organ systems)
Root apical meristem (RAM)
Rapidly dividing cells that produces the root system (roots, root branches)
Vegetative growth
Production of tissues by SAM and RAM and growth of mature plant; indeterminate growth
Indeterminate growth
SAMs continuously produce new stem tissue and leaves as long as conditions are favorable
Determinate growth
growth of limited duration
Annuals
plants that die after producing seeds during their first year of life
Biennials
Plants that do not reproduce the first year, but may the following year
Perennials
Plants that live for more than 2 years, often producing seed each year after maturity
Distinctive Architecture, Primary meristems, Ever-young stem cells, Plant cell expansion
What are the 4 essentials to the growth process of plants?
Upper apical pole and lower basal pole; and radial symmetry
What are the 2 features of distinctive architecture in plants
SAM
When dealing with distinctive architecture, which AM is at the upper pole?
RAM
When dealing with distinctive architecture, which AM is at the lower pole?
SAM and RAM
What 2 things produce additional meristematic tissue that inreases plant length and produces new organs?
Primary meristems
Produce primary tissues and organs of diverse types
Protoderm, Procambium, and Ground meristem, Pith
SAM and RAM both produce what four things?
Protoderm
Generates dermal tissue
Procambium
Produces vascular tissues (allows the movement of water throughout the plant)
Ground meristem
produces ground tissues defined by location
Pith
ground tissue at the center of mature stems; the very "core or middle" of the plant
Cortex
composed of parenchyma tissue; stores starch in plastids
Epidermis
What develops at the stem surface of plants and produces a waxy cuticle to reduce water loss?
Stem parenchyma
This tissue also has the ability to undergo cell division (meristematic capacity) to heal damage
Collenchyma, Sclerechyma, and Vascular tissue
Stems may also contain what three things?
Collenchyma tissue
This tissue is composed of collenchyma cells
Sclerechyma tissue
This tissue is composed of fibers and sclerids
Vascular tissue
This tissue is made of xylem and phloem arranged in vascular bundles; rings in eudicots; scattered in monocots
Pallisade parenchyma
On a leaf, what is the structure that absorbs sunlight efficiently?
Upper adaxial side
What side (upper or lower) of the leaf contains the pallisade parenchyma?
Stomata and spongy parenchyma
The lower adaxial side has more what?
gas exchange
Spongy parenchyma has air spaces to fost what?
Monocots
fibrous root system with multiple roots
Adventitious roots
produced on the surface of stems of monocots and eudicots (this is important for sexual reproduction)
Ever-young stem cells
Term stem cell used for plant meristem cells that remain undifferentiated but can produce new tissue
Plant stem cell
cell that divides to produce one cell that remains unspecialized and another cell that is capable of differentiating into various types of specialized cell
Phytomere
shoot module
Stem node
leaves emerge
Internode
between adjacent nodes
Axillary meristem
generate axillary buds for lateral shoots
Hormones
molecules that influence development at ta site distict from production
Auxin
controls production of leaf primordia; accumulates in particular apical region increasing expansion gene expression
Gibberellic acid
produced by leaf primordia not producing KNOX; stimulates cell division and cell enlargement so young leaves grow larger
Grow larger
The Absence of KNOX and production of GA makes young leaves do what?
Simple leaves
leaves that have only one blade, advantageous in shade by providing maximal light absorption
Complex (compound) leaves
leaves that are dissected into leaflets, common in hot environments for heat dissipation
pinnate (palmate) venation
Eudicot leaves have which kind of venation?
parallel venation
Monocot leaves have which kind of venation?
Cuticle
What part of a leaf on the epidermis helps avoid desiccation, filter UV radiation, reduce microbe and animal attack and is self cleaning?
Guard cells
Which cells reglate stomatal opening and closing
Trichomes
What offers protection from excessive light, UV radiation, extreme air temperature, or attack by herbivores?
Parenchyma cells
cells of ground tissue that make up the bulk of most non-woody structures
Collenchyma
What provides structural support in growing shoots and leaves, commonly found adjacent to growing tissues, and should be thought of as "glue"
Sclerenchyma
supports tissue in plants containing fibres and sclereids and is composed of dead cells with extremely thick cell walls
tendrils
tough scales that protect buds
Primary meristems
In the process of primary and secondary growth in a woody stem, the apical meristem, protoderm, grownd meristem, and procambium are part of which section of the process?
Primary tissues
In the process of primary and secondary growth in a woody stem, the epidermis, ground tissue, cortex, pith, primary xylem, and primary phloem are part of which section of the process?
Secondary (lateral) meristems
In the process of primary and secondary growth in a woody stem, the cork cambium and vascular cambium are part of which section of the process?
Secondary tissues
In the process of primary and secondary growth in a woody stem, the cork (outer bark), secondary xylem (wood), and secondary phloem (inner bark) are part of which section of the process?
protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium
The Apical meristem of a stem produces....
Epidermis
This protoderm leads to...
ground tissue
The ground meristem leads to...
Vascular cambium, primary xylem and primary phloem
The procambium leads to...
cortex and pith
Ground tissue leads to...
cork cambium
The cortex leads to...
DO IT!
Look at figure 35.21
water and small molecules
Xylem is responsible for...
organic compounds and certain molecules
Phloem is responsible for...
primary vascular tissue
Herbaceous (bush type plants) produce mostly which type(s) of vascular tissue?
Primary and secondary vascular tissue
Woody plants produce which type(s) of vascular tissue?
Primary xylem
What on a plant is supported by the following" unspecialized parenchyma cells; stiff fibers for structural support
Primary phloem
What on a plant is supported by the following: transports organic compounds and certain minerals; sieve elements; parenchyma cells; supportive cells
Wood
Secondary xylem is better known as...
Inner bark
Secondary phloem is better known as...
dead cork cells
Outer bark is composed of mostly what?
secondary phloem
Inner bark is composed of what?
Vascular cambium and Cork cambium
Secondary vascular tissues is produced by which types of secondary meristems?
secondary xylem and secondary phloem
VAscular cambium produces what?
Cork
Cork cambium produces what?
Rhizomes
underground stems
Dendrochronology
The study of rings on tress is called...
15
how many distinctive regions of cellular specialization is there in root growth?
apical meristem, zone of elongation, and zone of maturation
what are the 3 major zones of rood growth?
stem cells, protoderm (epidermal tissues), ground tissue, and procambium
RAM contains what 4 things?
zone of elongation
which zone has cells that extend by water uptake?
zone of maturation
which zone has roots cells diferentiation and tissue specialization?
Starch
root cortex cells are often rich in what?
xylem enclosed by phloem
primary vascular system includes...
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