AP Euro Chapter 20 The Age of Napoleon Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Napoleon bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Treaty of Campo Formio
Between Austria and France, Oct 17 1797. Incorporated Napoleon's ideas. Truce on continent. Austrian recognition of French annexation of Belgium, Lt bank of Rhine and Cisalpine Republic. In return Austria got Venice and Venetia. France got Ionians Islands.
Battle of Aboukir
Napoleon's last victory in Egypt, the first battle of Aboukir saw the defeat of an Ottoman army sent to expel him from Egypt. The French expedition to Egypt had been planned with the hope of Ottoman neutrality. This hope had been reduced by the battle of the Nile (1 August 1798) and the destruction of the French fleet. This defeat, combined with British diplomacy, and persuaded the Ottoman Empire to declare war on France on 9 September 1798.
Consulate
the premises occupied by a consul, an official appointed by a government to reside in a foreign city in order to represent his or her government's commercial interests and to give assistance to its citizens there
Constitution of Year Viii
was issued after Bonaparte pushed aside Sieyes' proposed constitution; this established the rule of one man- First Consul, Bonaparte; this also suggested democratic principles, complicated system of checks/balances appealing to republican theory, and a council of state that evoked memories of Louis XIV
plebiscite
a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Napoleonic code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Citizen-Soldiers
fought without pay; supply their own weapons; eventually got small "spoils of victory"; valued loyalty, courage, and respect for authority
Third Coalition
Emerging in 1805, it was yet another alliance against Napoleon that consisted of Britain, Austria, Russia. Britain saw naval victory against France at Trafalgar (#178), but that was counterbalanced by Napoleon's gigantic victory over Austria and Russia at Austerlitz (#179); the Continental war was ended by the Treaty of Pressburg that year.
Peace of Amiens
temporary peace between France and Britain which resulted in the only respite from over 20 years of war
Battle of Trafalgar
a naval battle in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain
Battle of Austerlitz
a decisive battle during the Napoleonic campaigns (1805)
Battle of Jena
To punish Prussia for joining the Third Coalition, Napoleon engaged in this battle. He obliterated the Prussian army and occupied their capital city of Berlin.
Confederation of Rhine
A federation of German states organized under Napoleon I in July 1806. Formerly under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, which was dissolved the same year, the new federation placed itself under the "protection" of Napoleon and was governed by one of his close allies. It quickly fell apart after Napoleon's defeat outside Leipzig in 1813 as member states abandonded the French and joined the German natinalist "war of liberation."
Treaty of Tilsit
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.
Berlin Decree
in 1806 which proclaimed a blockade of British Isles. Any ship that attempted to enter or leave the port would be seized by France. The British responded with a 2nd Order that required all neutral ships trading in the blockaded zones of Europe to stop at British ports to secure licenses.
Milan Decree
in 1807 which proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulation or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy was subject to seizure by France.
Continental system
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Peninsular Campaign
McClellans plan to capture Richmond, instead of going over land, he would go down the potomac river to a peninsula eas of richmond btwn the york and james rivers. fromhere the troops could approach the city
Francisco Goya
A Spanish painter of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Among his works is a series of paintings and etchings that powerfully depict the horrors of war.
Duke of Wellington
leader of the combined British and Prussian army; would defeat Napoleon at Waterloo
Grand Army
army of 500,000 men made by Napoleon to beat Alexander I when he refused to obey the Continental System
Tsar Alexander I
Ruled Russia during Napoleonic Wars and wanted peace after Napoleon's armied continued winning victories. The young tsar and Napoleon negotiated and he ended up accepting Napoleon's reorganization of Western and Central Europe and promised to enforce Napoleon's economic blockade against British goods.
Battle of Borodino
the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic era, fought in Borodino outside of Moscow; both sides had terrible losses, but the Russian army was not defeated; Napoleon gained nothing substantial and when Moscow was burned, the French forces were left completely cut off. Napoleon regarded this battle as a loss.
Fourth Coalition
Comprised of Prussia, Russia, Britain, Saxony, and Sweden, they fought against Napoleon from 1806-7. The war featured several major victories for the French, who conquered almost all of Prussia and Poland; the war ended with the Treaties of Tilsit.
Battle of Leipzig
In October of 1813, in wake of Russian Campaign disaster the anti-Nap forces were encouraged to regroup. German patriots encouraged. Wellington's victories in peninsular campaign and British donation of 32 million pounds between 1813 and 1815 all added to courage of anti-Nap forces. Despite Nap's new army, they were able to defeat him at the Battle of the Nations/Leipzig in 1813. Drove Nap all the way back to France. But the allies then started distrusting each other.
Elba
This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
Quadruple Alliance
G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.
Louis XVIII
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Prince Talleyrand
Napoleon's (#170) chief diplomat and later France's representative at the Congress of Vienna (#192), he was one of the greatest foreign ministers in history. He managed to allow France to keep her 1792 borders at the Congress.
Hundred Days
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the french. Napoleon's final defeat against the British and Prussians
St. Helena
Where Napoleon was exiled until the end of his life. 1815,1821 Revolution comes to an inglorious end.
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