AP Euro Reactionary and Romanticism Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Holy alliance
A league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
Eugene Delacroix
French romantic painter (1798-1863)
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
reactionaries
extremists who not only oppose change, but generally would like to turn the clock back to the way things were before
Decembrists
Russian liberals who staged a revolt against Tsar Nicholas I on the first day of his reign in December 1825
Tsar Nicholas I
Last emperor of Russia. He ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. Commisioned priest, Father Gapon, to organize group to counteract the Marxists. Nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in World War I. Dissolved Duma in 1906 His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917, after which he and his family were executed by Bolsheviks.
German Confederation
consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
Burschenschaften
Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.
Carlsbad Decrees of 1819
In response to the perceived threat of Burschenshaft, Metternich called a conference of German leaders to Bohemia. The Carlsbad Decrees: 1)Dissolved Burschenshaft and the equally nationalistic gymnastic clubs (hereafter some members joined secret societies) 2) Placed gov officials in universities 3)Censored to control contents of books and the periodical newspaper press. ( Imposed an effective check on the growth of liberal and nationalist ideas in Germany)
Zollverein
Prussian economic union, removed tariff barriers between German states, in step toward political unity
White Terror
royalist rebellion in Paris, trying to kill all revolutionaries, Napoleon first appears and says "width of a grape shot" and ends rebellion
Charter of 1814
Issued by the restored Bourbon King Louis XVIII. Promised legal equality, eligibility of all to public office without regard to class, and parliamentary gov with two chambers. Recognized the Napoleonic code, Napoleon's settlement with the church, and redistribution of property effected during the French Revolution. Carried over abolition of feudalism and privileges, manorialism and titles. Confined vote to small group of large landowners. Allowed France to temporarily at least, settle-down in peace
Charles X
1824-1830, Bourbon king of France after LXVIII. Previously the Count of Artois - one the the first emigres in revolution and very active in organizing the emigres opposition to the revolution. He was the favorite Bourbon among the most obstinate ex-seigneurs, nobles and high churchmen. Very reactionary in his reign.
Pietism
17th and 18th-century German movement in the Lutheran Church stressing personal piety and devotion
John Wesley
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
Methodism
Denomination of Protestant Christianity. Origin in evangelistic teachings of John Wesley. Originated in 18th century Britain. Originally it appealed especially to workers, agricultural workers, and slaves. Emphasizes that Christ accomplished salvation for every human being, and that humans must exercise an act of the will to be saved and low church in liturgy.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
English romantic poet (1772-1834)
William Wordsworth
a romantic English poet whose work was inspired by the Lake District where he spent most of his life (1770-1850)
William Blake
visionary British poet and painter (1757-1827)
Madame Ann-Louise de Stael
(1766 - 1817) Daughter of Jacques Necker Mistress of very popular Paris Salon and author of Dix annees d
Alexander Dumas
(1802 -1870) French novelist, bridge between Romantic and Realism. The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, The Fencing Master, The Nutcracker
Gothic genre
characterized by gloom and mystery and the grotesque
Bram Stoker
Irish writer of the horror novel about Dracula (1847-1912)
Mary Shelley
English writer who created Frankenstein's monster and married Percy Bysshe Shelley (1797-1851)
Percy Bysshe Shelley
English poet, son of a member of the House of Lords, felt that less gifted didn't recognize his brilliance, wrote "Prometheus Unbound" which was about people revolting against oppression, and wrote "Hymn of Apollo"
Lord Byron
Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include "She walks in Beauty" and the unfinished "Don Juan." Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.
Charles Dickens
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)
John Keats
Englishman and Romantic poet (1795-1821)
Grimms Brothers
Romantic/ German nationalist authors/ folktale compilers. Collected German folklore and published the stories, helped to foster German Nationalism and identity. Kinder- und Hausmärchen ("Children's and Household Tales")
J. M. W. Turner
An English romantic painter of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, known especially for his dramatic, lavishly colored landscapes and seascapes.
John Constable
most notable romantic painter-fascinated by nature-gentle Wordsworthian landscapes in which human beings were at one with their environment, the comforting countryside of unspoiled rural England
Caspar David Friedrich
19th century German Romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement- especially Romantic painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
David Ricardo
English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market (1772-1823)
Labor theory of value
Theory that the value of any produced good or service is equal to the amount of labor used, directly or indirectly, to produce it.
Iron law of wages
A theory proposed by David Ricardo that says"...as long as population exceeds jobs, then people are never going to earn more than they need to survive,...they will always be near starvation."
Jeremy Bentham
Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote, Principles of Morals and Legislation.
Utilitarianism
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Panopticon
an area where everything is visible
Liberalism
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
John Stuart Mill
English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism (1806-1873)
On Liberty
written by john mill advocationg economic freedom from the state
Comte de Saint-Simon
1760 -1825 semi-mystical "Christian-Scientific" socialism that pervaded the 19th Century. envisioned society with an elite of philosophers, engineers and scientists leading a peaceful process of industrialization tamed by their "rational" Christian-Humanism. influenced August Comte, John Stuart Mill, Marxism.
Utopian Socialism
socialism achieved by voluntary sacrifice
Francois Marie Charles Fournier
was a French utopian socialist and philosopher. Fourier is credited by modern scholars with having originated the word féminisme in 1837;[1] as early as 1808, he had argued, in the Theory of the Four Movements, that the extension of the liberty of women was the general principle of all social progress, though he disdained any attachment to a discourse of 'equal rights'.
Phalanstery
Idea thought of by the utopian socialist Fourier which consisted of "phalansteries" each containing about 1620 people doing whatever job they were naturally inclined to do.
Robert Owen
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)
Peterloo Massacre
In 1819, during a public meeting in St. Peter's Fields (Manchester, England), calvary charged into the crowd, killing 11. The purpose of the meeting was to protest the Corn Laws.
Six Acts
The six acts aimed to prevent radical meetings, like the one that sparked the Peterloo Massacre. It called such meetings 'overt act[s] of treasonable activity'. The laws passed, despite opposition from the Whigs.
George IV
King of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 1820 to 1830
Cato Street Conspiracy
Following the Peterloo Massacre and passing of the Six Acts (which hindered free speech) a group of revolutionaries came up with a plan to assassinate several cabinet ministers, overthrow the government and start a radical revolution, the plan failed and they were caught on Cato Street in London.
Rotten Borough
an English parliamentary constituency with few electors
Pocket Borough
a sparsely populated borough in which all or most of the land is owned by a single family
Chartism
the principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people
Peoples Charter
A publication printed by a committee whose objectives reflected Chartists views called for voting rights for all men and voting by secret ballot
Sir Robert Peel
Organized the first permanent police force in England
Anti-Corn Law League
1838, established by manufacturers Richard Cobden and John Bright; formed to help workers by lowering bread prices.
Irish Potato Famine
1840s - 1850s, caused 1,000,000 Irish to immigrate to America
Louis Philippe
King of France following Charles X. Abdicated the throne against threat of republican revolution (smelled his popularity was diminishing)
July Monarchy
This was the monarchy under Louis Philippe. It was more liberal than the restoration government.
Citizen-King
The name given to Louis Philippe because he was plain spoken and owed his throne to the people
Adolphe Thiers
Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least"
Francoise Guizot
French politician and historian (1787-1874) he was Louis-Philippe's prime minister the revolution in France of 1848 occurred largely because Louis-Philippe and Guizot opposed change. The riot which began the February Revolution began outside his house.
Alphonse de Lamartine
French poet and politician (1790-1869) he was a "political" republican who came to political prominence during the 1848 French Revolution. As the head of the Constituent Assembly he opposed Louis Blanc and pushed for the abolition of slavery and the death penalty; he would later run for president against Napoleon III and only got 18,000 votes.
Second French Republic
After the 1848 revolution in France, which caused Louis-Philippe to flee, this government system was put in place by revolutionists and guaranteed universal male suffrage. Louis-Napoleon (later known as Napoleon III), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was overwhelmingly elected president, and France enjoyed a period of stability and prosperity. This government was later overthrown in yet another coup d'etat.
Louis Blane
(1811-1882) Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It was the first step toward a future socialist society. Advocated the principle of "from each according to his abilties, to each according to his needs".
National workshops
Product of the new government in France. Imagined as nearly socialist cooperatives. In reality they were really temporary relief programs. Disliked by the moderates. Disbanded in June (bad move). Incited 3 day revolution (June Days) where workers fought against troops (and lost).
June Days
These were the French workers' revolts in 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
General Cavaignac
General instructed to regain power for France's Monarchy
Frankfurt Assembly
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany.
Pan-Slavism
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Elected president of France following general election. Won 70% of the votes because of his name. Bonaparte later changed the government to an empire w/himself as emperor just like his uncle, the original Napoleon.
Johann Gottfried von Herder
German philosopher who advocated intuition over reason (1744-1803)
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
father of german nationalism
philology
the humanistic study of language and literature
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German philosopher whose three stage process of dialectical reasoning was adopted by Karl Marx (1770-1831)
Hegelian dialectic
Theory that ideas are the driving force of history, staunchly opposes Marx's Dialectic Materialism.
Volksgeist
Term originally used by Johan Gottfried von Herder in 1784 which says that all true culture or civilization must arise from the native common people of a country. In other words each country needs its own unique national character.
Leopold von Ranke
Father of the "scientific" approach to history who said historians should report "The Way Things Really Were." Von Ranke said: "To accomplish something in history there are three requirements: a sound understanding of people, courage, and honesty."
Realpolitik
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
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