Plants: Ch 13 Secondary metabolites Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cutin suberin waxes
provide protection against pathogens already on the plant surface and help to reduce water loss.
terpene phenolic nitrogen
3 major groups of secondary metabolites
terpene
composed of five carbon isoprene units, are toxins and feeding deterrents to many herbivores
phenolic
synthesized primarily from products of the shikimic acid pathway
lignin
a phenolic compound, strengthens cell wall
flavonoid
pigment function as shields against harmful UV radiation and as attractants for pollinators and fruit dispersers.
nitrogen
these compounds synthesized principally from common amino acids.
jasmonic
plant defenses against insect herbivores involve the induction of various secondary metabolites and proteinaceous inhibitors of digestion through signaling pathways involving _____acid.
cutin
macromolecule, polymer consisting of many long chain fatty acids that are attached to each other by ester linkages
cuticle
cutin is the principal component of the _____.
cuticle
A multilayered secreted structure that coats the outer cell walls of the epidermis on the aerial parts of all herbaceous plants.
wax cutin cuticular
cuticle is composed of a top coating of ___, a thick middle layer containing ___ embedded in wax, and a lower layer formed of cutin, and wax blended with the cell wall substances pectin, cellulose and other carbohydrates (the ____ layer)
wax
not macromolecules, complex mixtures of long-chain acyl lipids that are extremely hydrophobic.
cutinase
many fungi penetrate directly through the plant surface by mechanical means - others produce ___, an enzyme that hydrolyzes cutin and thus facilitates entry into the plant
terpene
largest class of secondary products
insoluble
terpenes are soluble/insoluble in water
acetyl coA
terpenes are synthesized from ___ or glycolytic intermediates
terpenes
all ______ are derived from the union of five-carbon elements (aka C5 units) that have the branched carbon skeleton of isopentane
isoprene
basic structural elements of terpenes are sometimes called _____ units
monoterpene
ten carbon terpenes contain two c5 units
sesquiterpene
15 carbon terpenes, three c5 units
diterpene
20 carbon terpene, four c5 units
tetraterpene
40 carbon terpene, eight c5 units
mevalonic mep
Terpenes are biosynthesized from primary metabolites in at least two different ways
mevalonic acid
three molecules of acetyl co-a are joined together stepwise to form
isopentenyl diphosphate
mevalonic acid is phosphorlyated, decarboxylated and dehydrated to yield IPP
methylerythritol phosphate
IPP can also be formed from intermediates of glycolysis or the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle via a seperate set of reactions called the MEP
plastids
MEP operates in
gibberellins
certain terpenoids have well characterized function in plant growth/development - can be considered primary rather than secondary metabolites. This important plant hormone are diterpenes
abscisic acid
This hormone is a c15 terpene produced by degradation of a carotenoid precursor.
acetyl coA
starting material for terpenoid in the mevalonate pathway
glyceraldehyde and pyruvate
starting material for terpenoid in the MEP pathway
methylerythritol phosphate pathway
Acronym for MEP
pyrethroid
monoterpene ester that occur in leaves and flowers of chrysanthemum species, show insectidicial activity
chlorophyll
terpene derived side chains such as phytol side chain of _____ help anchor certain molecules in membranes.
phytoecdysone
group of plant steroids that have the same basic structure as insect molting hormones
cardenolides
glycosides (compounds containing an attached sugar) that taste bitter and are extremely toxic to higher animals. Have dramatic effect on heart muscle through their influence on Na+/K+ activated ATPases. Extracts from foxglove prescribed as heart medication.
jasmonic acid
compound that functions as a powerful feeding deterrent against mammalian grazers
salicylic acid
phenolic compound responsible for systemic acquired resistance to pathogens
phytoalexins
secondary compounds that protect plants against invading pathogens
terpene
plant growth regulator such as gibberellins or abscisic acid
nitrogen
potent neurotoxins such as nicotine and coniine
terpene
insect repellents/deterrents such as pyrethroids or limonoids
phenolic
light absorbing defenses such as flavonoids or phototoxic coumarins
nitrogen
cyanogenic defensive compounds
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