American Government, Roots and Reform Unit 2 Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
retrospective Judgement
A voters evaluation of the performance of the party in power
Prospective Judgement
a voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected
media programming on cable TV or the Internet that is focused on one topic and aimed at a particular audience. Examples include MTV, ESPN, and C-SPAN.
yellow journalism
sensational news coverage, emphasizing crime and scandal
CNN and Fox News
Examples of narrowcasted programming cnn is viewed as a liberal perspective while fox is viwed more conservative
Narrowcasting and the polarization of public opinion
It limits one exposure to a broad range of information or competing views, and thus resulting in a further polarization of public opinion, especially when it comes to programs with a specific ideological direction.
New York Times v. Sullivan
1964; established guidelines for determining whether public officials and public figures could win damage suits for libel. To do so, individuals must prove that the defamatory statements were made w/ "actual malice" and reckless disregard for the truth
why media had little influence on public opinion
people tend to see what they want to see, huan neings will focus on parts of a report to reinforce their own attitudes and ignore parts that challenge their core beliefs.
Agenda setting
the power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
Leonard Downie, Jr. Executive director of the Washington Post
cluding three gold medals for public service. Downie's mantra -- reflected in routine stories as well as such Pulitzer-winning efforts as the 2007 exposé of shoddy conditions at Walter Reed Army Medical Center -- was "accountability journalism." Downie is a director of The Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service.
According to Bob Woodward's 2005 book The Secret Man, Downie was one of the few people to know the true identity of Watergate scandal informant Deep Throat before it was revealed to be Mark Felt.
disturbance theory
a theory that locates the origins of interest groups in changes in the economic, social, or political environment that threaten the well-being of some segment of the population
Economic interest groups
An organized group that tries to influence public policy,
to promote financial interest of its members
Characteristics of PAC's
D PAC's- political Action Committees
1 It's a big loophole have to much control on influence of candidates.
2 The very first PAC was a labor PAC the CIO-PAC (congress on industrial organization) a union of unskilled workers.
3 Smith-Connally act prohibits labor unions from donating to national candidates and became permanent by the Taft-Hardly Act 1947.
4 PAC categories
a Corporate PAC's
b Labor PAC's
c Trade PAC's
d Non-connected PAC's (these are ideological PAC's concerned with propaganding single issues).
How interest groups lobby the federal courts
Direct sponsorhip or filling an amicus cuiea brief. influencing the judicial selection process at the federal court system you lobby the executive branch so you try to have some influence on the people he appoints. Direct litigations, suing. Amicus curiae briefs; third party briefs submitted by parties not involved directly in the litigation. The purpose is to influence the final decision of federal courts.
Lobbying Disclosure Act
legislation aimed at bringing a level of accountability to federal lobbying practices. - law with some teeth requiring people to register as lobbyists.
Emily's List
Early money is like yeast.- it makes the dough rise, was founded to support prochoice democratic women candidates , republican responded with the WISH list
Free rider problem
the problem faced by interest groups when citizens can reap the benefits of interest group action without actually joining, participating in, or contributing money to such groups.
Control of the Democratic Party Organization in Texas
has been in ideological liberal hands since 1976, jim Hightower
Jim Hightower
elected into executive offices all won reelection in 1986 recent elections democrats have not faired well. in 1990 rep rick perry won the republicans replaced the demo since the 1990's
1996 division of republican party convention
Abortion!,tried to seclude a republican, Kay bailey Hutchinson for her pro-life views were not staunch for them,
Effects of party Realignment in Texas
is not its dealigning party affiliations are weakening and the growth of independent affiliates .Texas is becoming no party state. Elections are becoming about candidates and not about parties.
Election of Governor and Lieutenant Governor in Texas
do not run as a team on the ballot. relationships between the two even if they are from the smae party is not always the most cordial.
Texas Ethic Commission
were lobbysist register/.
terrell election law
Passed by the Texas legislature in 1905, which established primary elections for all local and state offices.
Characteristics of political parties in Texas
A One party two factions conservative and liberal.
B 1914 James Ferguson, elected as a candidate of business but became a champion of the poor people. Elected again 1916 then impeached and convicted. Later on his wife Miriam (ma) Ferguson served two consecutive terms. The beliefs of the Ferguson was known as Fergunisms was a forunner of the new deal in Texas.
C 1944 state democratic convention: the conservative democrats completely split away from the party. Formed there owned group and formed the anti-Roosevelt regulars. Then eventually merged with the dixi-crats in 1948. Then the liberals in 1952 and 1956 had a problem with the conservative democrat governor who came out and supported the republican presidential candidate. So they formed there own organization the DOT ,Democrats of Texas.
Stages in movement towards universal suffrage
1 White manhood suffrage
2 Black suffrage
3 Female suffrage
4 18 year old suffrage
Suffrage Amendments
we have added five amendments to the constitution that deal with suffrage requirements. (15-former slaves and blacks,19-woman,23-d.c voters get three electoral votes,24 abolishes the poll tax in federal elections,26-18 year old)
1965 voting rights act
suspended literacy tests; federal examiners order registration of blacks where fewer than 1/2 population registered; criminal penalties for interfereing with right to vote
Basic law of 1965, first real serious effort in part of federal gov to enforce civil rights laws. The triggering device suspended literary test were less than 50 percent of the voting percent of the population had been registered to vote. Preclearance provision. Federal examiners. For the first time it became a federal crime to violate the 15 amendment
Oregon v. mitchell
1970 VRA, suspended literacy tests in all areas of the country. Residency requirements maximum of 30 day requirements to vote in presidential elections. !8 year old voting age in all federal, state, and local elections. (a suite was filed by Oregon in Oregon v Mitchel 1970) the court upheld the first 2 provisions the court held that federal gov can only regulate federal election. And that congress has over stepped its authority only state and local can determine there voting age requirements. So what you cant do by statute you can turn around and do it by amendment so congress added to the constitution in the 26th amendment because of all the emotion in 18 years being able to fight and die for the country).
Dunn v. Blumstein
in 1972 court ruled that states can not go beyond 30 day residency requirement for voting in all federal state and local elections, in 1973 the court modified this positions slightly by saying that state could go up to 50 day state and local election requirement
The responsible Electorate- V.O.Key
he came up with three voting categories in accordance with actual voting behavior.
1 Standfatehrs: straight party people vote for the same party election after election
2 Switchers: change parties from one election to the next.
3 New Voters: people who did not vote in the last election and also people who have never voted before.
Voter turnout in recent years
Low in recent years , ppl are to busy, difficulty registering, difficulty in absentee voting, voter attitudes number of elections, weakened influnce of political parties.
Demography of 2008 election- black and latino vote
High turnout duh
Categories of nonvoters
4 groups of people who don't vote:
A Alienated voters, are apathetic to voting they just don't care and are not going to vote
B Disconnected people who cant participate because of advanced age or disability
C Disenchanted voters- the newest category well educated well informed have some of the same characteristics as voters keep up with politics and interested but they are tired of all the negativism and negative campaigning
Margaret Brent
The first woman's liberalist and woman suffragist was Margaret Brent. In 1647 her husband died and she inherited all his property, and reasoned very logically that she had property so she should be able to vote so she petitioned the Maryland Legislature on the right to vote.
Minor v. Happersett
Minor v Happersett, arguments said that woman had the right to vote under the 14th amendments the equal protection and due process clause the woman lost the court said that the 14th amendment did not give woman the right to vote so woman realized that they needed there own amendment this started in January 10th 1878.
Characteristics of politics during the Gilded Age
A Characteristics of politics during the Gilded Age:
1 first of it was called the era of congressional government, and the federal governments was controlled by big business
2 An era of very mediocre presidents. The image of the president went down
3 Seldom did a presidents party control both chambers of congress (house and senate).
4 Presidential elections were won by razor thin margins
5 High voter turnout in late 1800, its not that people respected the system or president but people turned out in large numbers because it was like a spectator sport,
6 No new issues, same issues over and over. Issus of tariff and civil service systems
7 Cemented the relationship between the republican party and big business.
8 Gave the democratic party the reputation as being bad for the economy.
9 William Jennings Bryant failed to bring together the rural farmer and the urban worker under the democratic party umbrella.
10 The two major parties in 1896 abandoned the common man, and to some extent both parties were controlled by big business even the democrats not to the extent republicans were.
11 The republican party was mistakenly considered to be the party of labor, it was not.
Ticket splitter study
a The ticket splitter: a new form in American politics, related with the concept of dealignment. Emerged because people were frustrated at the two major parties so people started splitting there tickets some rep some democrats. People participated more because peole are not electing for parties but rather issues and candidates. This study examined voting behavior regardless of what you claimed to be.
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
1824 presidential election
election intensified the split within the ranks of the first republican party
Todays republican party originated at an antislavery convention in Jackson Michigan. The first minor party to ruin a presidential candidate was the ant-Masonic party in 1832
secular realignment
the gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system
prospect of a national realignment
reason the south shifted toward republican party
Seymour Lipset political man
main point in the book is that there is a class basis to our political system. An American tory radical is one that is born into a wealthy republican family but later in life involved in democratic party issues, a liberal republican, Lipset said that radicals tends to blur class lines between these two major parties.
Alexander hamilton and the federalist party
federalists believed that only the aristocracy should participate in government very heavy emphasis on commercial purposes primary purpose of gov is to keep order because you can trust man and, very pro British. This point of view was the conservative point of view at this time. Hamilton was a loose constructionist the idea that the federal gov has unstated powers that can be justified under the necessary and proper clause. Eastern bankers, traders, the wealthy people gravitated towards this party.
Philosophies of the federalist party and the first republican party
federalists believed that only the aristocracy should participate in government very heavy emphasis on commercial purposes primary purpose of gov is to keep order because you can trust man and, very pro British. This point of view was the conservative point of view at this time. Hamilton was a loose constructionist the idea that the federal gov has unstated powers that can be justified under the necessary and proper clause. Eastern bankers, traders, the wealthy people gravitated towards this party.
formation of the republican party
Todays republican party originated at an antislavery convention in Jackson Michigan. The first minor party to ruin a presidential candidate was the ant-Masonic party in 1832.
1860, Abraham Lincoln won, member of this new republican party, won bc of a splt between the democratic party.
Presidential election of 1860
The golden Age: Abraham Lincoln won, member of this new republican party, won bc of a splt between the democratic party.
5 1800 D, 1860 R, 1932 D, these were the major eras od realignment,
1896 Presidential election
election R-William McKinley, D-William Jennings Bryan this was a realigning election. In 1896 Bryan lost in 1896 but hes the one that had the realigning message, the message was "the system needed to be democratized the political system and making it more responsive to the common man" he lost because had the wrong weapon to fight the battle he had a very narrow issue. His issue was the free coinage of silver. In 1896 the populist party merged with the democrats.
1912 Presidential election
In 1912 republican convention Taft was re nominated after being picked in 1908 by Roosevelt himself, some republican got mad and started the progressive party and they nominated Roosevelt the democrats were able to win because of the split, Wilson won. Wilson was barely re-elected In 1916
1928 Presidential election
two big issues, Herbert Hoover republican, and the democratic candidate was Al Smith
1 prohibition- it wasn't working it generated lots of crime, the democrats wanted to abolish prohibition and the republican wanted to keep going the 21st amendments repealed the 18th amendment
2 Al smith was the first catholic to ever run in the presidency it became a hot issue, a lot of mudslinging took place. Herbert hoover won, The south was solemnly democratic but in 1928 the issue of south being a catholic the south carried for the republican president.
In 1928 Hoover had to spend all his time spending his time with the stock market crashing in 1929. This set the stage for 1932
1948 Presidential election
sever split between the democratic party, a split on the right wing, the dixicrats were formed and ran strum Thurman. On the democrats side they ran Henry Wallace, harry Truman pulled it out and won, 1948 was so important because it indicated that FDRs
coalition was cracking under the stress of internal tension.
The real majority theory
Richard Scammon and Ben Watteberg, according to this theory neither party controls the white house because each election is decided on its own merits. According to them most Americans are concerned with social issues. They characterized the typical American voter are centric and moderates interested in social issues. Also known as the attitudinal center.
Realigning elections
A 1800s, issue was opposition to growing power of the central government and the fear that the united states was becoming a copy of England, the candidate was thoma Jefferson and his party was the republican party and for the next 60 years his party dominated the hite House Bravo
B 1828 issue was the expansion of political power to common Americans and opposition to the "establishment" Jackson was the candidate and is a member of whats known as today democratic party
C 1860 issue was political opposition to the expansion of slavery into U.S territories, and also a moral opposition to having slavery in the south. Lincoln was a member of the new republican party
D 1896 issue was opposition to big gov and big business, big business took over the federal gov. and a demand of gov opposition or trust busting by government and also the issue of democratizing the system and making more towards the common man, the loosing candidate Bryan had the realigning message against McKinley
E 1932 issue was the depression and the need for gov intervention in the economy, gov programs an expansion of gov welfare programs, the candidate was Franklin Roosevelt which was a democrats
Maintaining deviating and converting elections
A Maintaining election which is party in power wins re election and maintains power
B Deviating election, existing party maintain but short term forces enable the minority party to win the presidency. Such as 1912 and 1916. another example is 1952 and 1956 democrats controlled but Eisenhower won a republican
C Converting elections, the dominant party wins the presidency but significant coalitional changes have occurred within one or both major parties. Such as 1928 when Hoover ran against Al Smith a democratic catholic. Six of the 12 southern states voted republican because they didn't like al Smith being a catholic, same thing happened in 1964 five or 6 southern states voted for Berry Goldwater and not LBJ because LBJ passed the civil rights act
D Realigning elections, major changes in coalitional support that are visible of all levels of the system, unusual intensity over the issues, there's as sharp polarization amongst the electorate and people are really split, large turnout of previous non voters, there are significant consequences to the later development of public policy
Differences between the first and second party system
the first originated in the congress the second originated in the presidency in the executive branch. The first system took only four five years to mature the second system took more than 16 years to mature. The first party system used the caucus method to nominate candidates the second system was more democratic and selected delegates in to go to conventions. The second party system failed because of slavery. The Sundquist thesis, stated that the whgs got whipped out during a realignment crisis the party that strives to maintain a middle ground tends to get whipped out
Destruction of the second and third party system
N The third party system, was an era or militant political groups, you had populist party which merged with the democrats in 96, both parties became tools of industrial capitalism. The destruction of the third party system was caused by the abandonment by the average American voter by both major parties.
Sundquist theory
the Sundquist thesis, stated that the whgs got whipped out during a realignment crisis the party that strives to maintain a middle ground tends to get whipped out
1964 Presidential election
civil rights act dealigning since then nor realigning
political socialization-impact on children
Arterton did a study of kids grades 4-8 (this was after the Watergate Scandal) it discovered that kids were very negative against the president and Nixon. 70% of kids personally held a negative view on Nixon.
biased wording in survey questionnaires
Literary Digest and the 1936 Presidential election
In 1936 FDR ran for reelection against Landon, the literary digest predicted That Landon republican of Kansas would beat FDR, but FDR prevailed and won so there were flaws in the survey.
1 One error was they surveyed people who had telephones, but in 1936 not a lot of people had telephones. They also surveyed people who had automobile ownership. Both these people were probably more affluent and tended to lean republican so the sample was concentrated in the upper middle class. And the third error was done self-selection, these survey cards only highly motivated individuals returned those survey cards.
Young american voter turnout
not so great 58 percent of those elegible 18-24 are only registered
Why hispanics and native americans hold similar views on many issues
disadvantages of getting political information from television talk shows
skewed information!
political development of college students
How children's attitudes toward the president change
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Jerry Falwell
Leader of the Religious Right Fundamentalist Christians, a group that supported Reagan; rallying cry was "family values", anti-abortion, favored prayer in schools
Liberal religious groups
frontrunner in the 2008 presidential primary
unconventional political participation
twenty sixth amendment
an amendment to the US constituion, adoped in 1971 and lowering the voting age from 21 to 18
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