AP Psychology Myers - Ch12: Motivation and Work Flashcards

Terms Definitions
motivation
the need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal
instinct
a complex behavior that has a fixed pattern throughout a species and is unlearned; Darwin people believed all human behavior was controlled by instincts
drive-reduction theory
theory that a physiological need creates an aroused state that DRIVES the organism to REDUCE the need; we are pushed by our need to reduce drives (ex. when you are starving, all you can think about is eating food so that you can feel satisfied again)
homeostasis
the tendency to maintain a balanced, constant internal state; literally means "staying the same;" body chemistry always wants to remain at a certain level; (ex. body's temperature regulating system)
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that lures or repels us; (ex. fear of disapproval, aroma of freshly baked french fries)
optimum arousal
when all biological needs are met, we don't want too little arousal (because we'll be bored), but we don't want too much (because we'll be stressed); includes curiosity-driven behaviors
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's idea of a pyramid of human needs; physiological needs (ex. hunger) must first be satisfied, then safety needs (ex. security), then belonging needs (ex. love), then esteem needs (ex. respect), and last is self-actualization needs (ex. achieving big goals); some motives are more compelling than others
glucose
blood sugar that serves as a major energy source for body tissues; when it's low, we feel hungry
hypothalamus
controls appetite
lateral hypothalamus
part of the hypothalamus that Lets out hunger; when stimulated, appetite increases; when destroyed, appetite is destroyed
ventromedial hypothalamus
part of hypothalamus that decreases hunger; makes hunger Vanish; when stimulated, appetite Vanishes; when destroyed, appetite is uncontrollable
insulin
hormone IN the pancreas; decreases blood sugar/glucose; used by diabetics
orexin
hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus
ghrelin
hormone secreted by empty stomach; makes stomach say "ghrrrr! I'm hungry!"; causes stomach noises
PYY
digestive tract hormone; sends message to brain saying "FYI, I'm not hungry! Stop eating!"
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a person drops significantly below normal weight
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized overeating followed by vomiting or excessive exercise; binging and purging episodes
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding as described by Masters and Johnson - 1. excitement, 2. plateau, 3. orgasm, 4. resolution
refractory period
a resting period for the male after stage 3 orgasm; during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm for a few days
sexual disorders
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal/functioning; includes premature ejaculation, erectile disorder, and orgasmic disorder
estrogen
sex hormone secreted more by females; peak during ovulation
testosterone
sex hormone; higher levels found in males; increases sexual arousal
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of one's own sex (homosexual) or the other sex (heterosexual); caused by genetic influence, prenatal hormones, and brain structure
Kinsey
the last name of the man who tried to collect data about human sexual practices, but his data was biased and untrustworthy because he only interviewed white, rich people
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness; diminished awareness of the time FLOW; optimal engagement of one's skills
industrial-organizational psychology
IO psychology; the application of psychological concepts to optimizing human performance in workplace; has three subfields
personnel psychology
one of three subfields of IO psychology; focuses on the PERSON; (ex. employee recruitment, placement, training, and appraisal)
organization psychology
one of three subfields of IO psychology; studies how environment influences worker performance; focuses on the ORGANIZATION of the workplace (ex. organizing assembly line to boost productivity)
human factors psychology
one of three subfields of IO psychology; studies how machines can be optimally designed to fit human abilities; (ex. Xbox controllers)
interviewer illusion
the tendency for interviewers to overrate their "gut feelings" about a prospective employee
structured interview
an unbiased interview that asks the same questions to all applicants; rated based on scales
360 degree feedback
a type of feedback in which you are rated by the CIRCLE of those around you; includes customer rating, supervisor rating, peer rating, and subordinate rating
achievement motivation
the desire to ACHIEVE something significant; MOTIVATION to master things, people, ideas; leads to ambition; some people have more of it than others
task leaders
one of two leadership types; goal-oriented, directive, organized; these leaders are less liked, but more efficient
social leaders
one of two leadership types; mediate conflicts, work together, talk about feelings; these leaders are more liked, but less efficient
Theory X
one of two theories assumed by managers; assumes that workers are naturally X-rated; lazy, error-prone, and greedy; tend to be task leaders
Theory Y
one of two theories assumed by managers; assumes that workers are naturally good, motivated by self-esteem, and creative
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