the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Neurons of the hypothalamus that secrete neurohormone rather than neurotransmitter
A hormone, produced by the neurosecretory cells in the insect brain, that promotes development by stimulating the prothoracic glands to secrete ecdysone.
peptides and proteins that stimulate cell proliferation
a poisonous red-brown gas (NO)
-triggers changes in target cells
-can kill cancer cells
modified fatty acids released from cells that cause smooth muscle contraction and pain
hormones that have other endocrine glands as their targets and that are particularly important to our understanding of chemical coordination.
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
-lobe of pituitary gland that secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin)
(ADH), hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland
|insulin growth factors||
produced by liver and bone tissue
gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary
-initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month in the ovary and stimulates one or more follicles to develop to the stage of matuirty and ovulation
-stimulates estrogen secretion by developing follicles; stimulates sperm production in the male
a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary
-stimulates ovaries and testes
causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth
Hormones (FSH and LH) that stimulate the development of ovaries and testes.
Stimulates the drenal cortex to secrete hormones, mainly cortisol. Secreted from the ant. Pituitary gland.
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It stimulates pigment production in the skin.
natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
involved biological rhythms
located in front of the neck, functioning to secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
-regulate growth and metabolism
(T3) A hormone produced by the thyroid gland known as T3 that requires iodine for its production. This hormone regulates the level of cell metabolism. The greater the level of hormone in the blood stream, the higher cell metabolism will be.
(T4)hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
reduces blood calcium level
there are usually four of these. They produce hormones which regulate concentration of blood calcium & phosphorus. Imbedded in posterior surface of thyroid. Increases blood calcium.
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
|islets of Langerhans||
clusters of endocrine cells that secrete two hormones directly into the circulatory system: glucagon & insulin
a hormone secreted by the pancreas
|type I diabetes mellitus||
- destroys pancreatic cells that produce insulin
|type II diabetes mellitus||
Non-insulin dependent. Most common, usually familial, occurs later in life, control with oral hypoglycemic drugs and diet.
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
the cortex of the adrenal gland
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
-released during stress
agents that decrease inflammation or itching
-suppress secretion of ACTH
raise blood sugar by breaking down glycogen in liver; suppress immune functions like inflammation
One of the major groups of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. It regulates water and electrolyte balance in extracellular fluid, mainly by regulating sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubules. Chiefly aldosterone.