Ap Biology Chapter 45: Chemical Signals in Animals Flashcards

Terms Definitions
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
neurosecretory cells
Neurons of the hypothalamus that secrete neurohormone rather than neurotransmitter
brain hormone
A hormone, produced by the neurosecretory cells in the insect brain, that promotes development by stimulating the prothoracic glands to secrete ecdysone.
growth factors
peptides and proteins that stimulate cell proliferation
nitric oxide
a poisonous red-brown gas (NO)
-triggers changes in target cells
-can kill cancer cells
prostaglandins
modified fatty acids released from cells that cause smooth muscle contraction and pain
tropic hormones
hormones that have other endocrine glands as their targets and that are particularly important to our understanding of chemical coordination.
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
posterior pituitary
(neurohypophysis)
-lobe of pituitary gland that secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
oxytocin
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin)
antidiuretic hormone
(ADH), hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus
growth hormone
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland
insulin growth factors
produced by liver and bone tissue
-stimulate growth
Prolactin
gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary
follicle-stimulating hormone
-initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month in the ovary and stimulates one or more follicles to develop to the stage of matuirty and ovulation
-stimulates estrogen secretion by developing follicles; stimulates sperm production in the male
luteinizing hormone
a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary
-stimulates ovaries and testes
thyroid-stimulating hormone
causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth
gonadotrophins
Hormones (FSH and LH) that stimulate the development of ovaries and testes.
adrenocorticotrophic hormone
Stimulates the drenal cortex to secrete hormones, mainly cortisol. Secreted from the ant. Pituitary gland.
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It stimulates pigment production in the skin.
endorphins
natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
melatonin
involved biological rhythms
thyroid gland
located in front of the neck, functioning to secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
-regulate growth and metabolism
triiodothyronine
(T3) A hormone produced by the thyroid gland known as T3 that requires iodine for its production. This hormone regulates the level of cell metabolism. The greater the level of hormone in the blood stream, the higher cell metabolism will be.
thyroxine
(T4)hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
calcitonin
reduces blood calcium level
parathyroid glands
there are usually four of these. They produce hormones which regulate concentration of blood calcium & phosphorus. Imbedded in posterior surface of thyroid. Increases blood calcium.
pancreas
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
islets of Langerhans
clusters of endocrine cells that secrete two hormones directly into the circulatory system: glucagon & insulin
alpha cells
secrete glucagon
glucagon
a hormone secreted by the pancreas
beta cells
secrete insulin
type I diabetes mellitus
- destroys pancreatic cells that produce insulin
-insulin-dependent diabetes
type II diabetes mellitus
Non-insulin dependent. Most common, usually familial, occurs later in life, control with oral hypoglycemic drugs and diet.
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
adrenal cortex
the cortex of the adrenal gland
adrenal medulla
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
epinephrine
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
catecholamines
dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
-released during stress
corticosteroids
agents that decrease inflammation or itching
-suppress secretion of ACTH
glucocorticoids
raise blood sugar by breaking down glycogen in liver; suppress immune functions like inflammation
mineralocorticoids
One of the major groups of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. It regulates water and electrolyte balance in extracellular fluid, mainly by regulating sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubules. Chiefly aldosterone.
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