Barron's AP World History Flashcards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Muhammad
Had a transformational spiritual experience and traveled through the Arabian Peninsula proclaiming that he was the last prophet of Allah.
Expansion of Islam
Rapid expansion in the century after Muhammad's death was the work of early caliphs who spread the word through pilgrimages.
Abbasid Dynasty
Abbasids, headquartered in Baghdad, allowed Muslims as well as Persians, Egyptians, and Mesopotamians to rise to positions of power and wealth.
Trade within Eastern Hemisphere
Commercial centers in Nishapur, Bukhara, and Samarkand facilitated the revival of trade over the Silk Road (perpetuated by Muslims)
The Quran and Women
Described Women as honorable individuals equal to men, not property
Islam in Northern India
Muslim forces reached India by the mid-seventeenth century
Sui Dynasty
After centuries of turmoil following the Han dynasty, they restored peace and order.
Tang Dynasty
Restored peace and stability after the fall of the Sui dynasty.
Song Dynasty
Followed the Tang Dynasty, the first emperor, Song Taizu, started policy of distrust of military leaders, focused on civil service exams, industry, education, and the arts.
Technological Development of Tang and Song Dynasties
Advances were made possible as a result of abundant food supplies: High quality porcelain, metallurgical technologies, military advances, printing technology.
Neo Confucianism
Developed in response to the growing popularity of Buddhism
Early Japan
An agricultural society inspired by Tang China, instituted a series of reforms to centralize power.
Medieval Japan
Samurai, played an important role in Japanese Society, they observed bushido, which emphasized the imprtance of loyalty to the warriors lord.
Frankish Empire
Franks built a society based on agriculture in northern regions of europe, and oversaw the development of decentralized political institutions in those areas.
Carolingian Empire
Charlemagne extended the empire into northeastern Spain, Bavaria, and Italy and as far south as Rome.
Decline of the Carolingian Empire
Charlemagne died in 814.
Feudalism
Basic concept refers to the political and social order of medieval Europe based on a hierarchy of lords and vassals who controlled political and military affairs.
Crusades
Holy Wars
Toltecs
Migrated to central Mexico, settled Tula during the Eighth century.
Aztecs
Known as the cannibal kingdom, for their widespread practice of human sacrifice.
Incan Empire
An empire in Modern day Peru
Sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
Agricultural Diffusion
The shift of food gathering to food producing. Gatherer>grower=agricultural revolution. Chaser>herder=domestication. People could now live in one area because they didn't have to search for food. Could now make houses
Influence of Christianity in Europe
by 1000, Christianity was the accepted religion in most of western Europe
• The pope was established as the single most important figure, providing the church with a sense of direction
Feudal Society in Europe
Divided into three classes, clergy, warrior, and worker
Hanseatic League (hansa)
• A trade network that developed in the Baltic and North Sea (1400s-1600s); encompassed the commercial centers of Poland, northern Germany, and Scandinavia; linked to the Mediterranean through the Rhine and Danube Rivers
• Traded: grain, fish, furs, timber, and pitch
• Frequency of trade led to the adoption of credit and banking systems, which made trade possible on a large scale
• Commercial partnerships further increased the volume of trade in Europe Impact on class structure of northern Europe made social mobility possible
Feudal Monarchies
Maintained order, provided relatively stable and effective government, later provided impetus (a force that moves something along) for ocean-going explorations
Manor Life
During the middle ages in Europe, a lord's estate, which included one or more villages and the surrounding lands, was known as a manor. Serfs on the manor were bound to land and had to work on the fields. They were only allowed to follow Christianity. Peasants on the manor were guaranteed the benefits of staying such as protection, land and food in exchange for work.
Feudalism in Europe and Japan
• Code of Conduct—Europe: chivalry; Japan: Bushido
• Warriors—Europe: knights; Japan: daimyo
• Ruler—Europe: king; Japan: emperor (really a figurehead; control rested with shogun)
Confucius
Chinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC)
Confucianism
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Legalism
strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit
Qin Dynasty
a short-lived Chinese dynasty that replaced the Zhou Dynasty in the 3rd century BC
Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
Early Han Dynasty
• Claiming the "mandate of heaven," Liu Bang centralized rule using persistence and methodical planning; started the longest lasting Chinese dynas—the Han (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.)
• Emperors ruled from Chang'an, with its imperial palace, busy markets, and parks
• Han Wudi, the "martial emperor," ruled the Han from 141 to 87 B.C.E. with two goals: to centralize governmental power and to expand the empire. He used Legalist principles as the guidelines for his government
• Wudi appointed imperial officers in provinces to enforce laws and levy taxes on
agriculture, trade, and craft industries
• Demand for Chinese silk in India, Persia, Mesopotamia, and the Roman Empire led to development of trade routes (the silk roads)
• Wudi exercised tremendous government control over the building of roads and canals to increase trade and communication. Government also controlled production of essential goods: iron, salt, and liquor
Emperor Wudi
emperor under the Han Dynasty that wanted to create a stronger central government by taking land from the lords, raising taxes and places the supply of grain under the government's control
Fall of Han dynasty
• Collapsed—divisions within the ruling elite limited the effectiveness of the government
• Issues: land distribution, private armies, unrest, economic decline
• Rise in epidemics late second, early third centuries led to the Yellow Turban Rebellion (rebels' yellow turbans represented their peasant status and their ties to the earth)
• Dynasty in 220 C.E. formally ended
Mauryan Dynasty
first ruler was Chandragupta Maurya; unified much of the entire subcontinent; large armies with thousands of chariots and elephant borne troops; developed a substantial bureaucracy with a postal service; autocratic government
Gupta Dynasty
Second Empire in India; founded by Chandra Gupta
Jainism
a religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul. Some were extreme aesthetics.
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
Mycenaeans
first Greek-speaking people; invaded Minoans; dominated Greek world 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.; sea traders; lived in separate city-states; invovled in Trojan War against Troy
Polis
Greek word for city-state
Sparta
an ancient Greek city famous for military prowess
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