Figurative Language: Schemes and Tropes Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
Parallelism
similarity of structure in a pair of series of related words, phrases, or clauses
Isocolon
similarity not only of structure but also of length
Antithesis
the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, often in parallel structure
Anastrophe
inversion of the natural or usual word order
Parenthesis
insertion of some verbal unit in a position that interrupts the normal syntactical flow of the sentence
Apposition
placing side by side two coordinate elements, the second of which serves as an explanation or modification of the first
Ellipsis
the deliberate omissions of a word or of words readily implied by the context
Asyndeton
deliberate omission of conjunctions between a series
Polysyndeton
deliberate use of many conjunctions
Alliteration
repetition of initial or medial consonants in two or more adjacent words
Assonance
repetition of similar vowel forms, preceded and followed by different consonants in the stressed syllables of adjacent words
Anaphora
repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses
Epistrophe
repetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of successive clauses
Epanalepsis
repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause
Anadiplosis
repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause
Climax
arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of increasing importance
Antimetabole
repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order
Chiasmus
reversal of grammatical structures in successive clauses (but no repetition of words)
Polyptoton
repetition of words derived from the same root
Metaphor
implied comparison between two things of unlike nature
Simile
explicit comparison between two things of unlike nature
Synecdoche
figure of speech in which a part stands for a whole
Metonymy
substitution of some attributive or suggestive word for what is actually meant
Antanaclasis
repetition of a word in two different senses
Paronomasia
use of words alike in sound but different in meaning
Syllepsis
use of a word understood differently in relation to two or more other words, which it modifies or governs
Anthimeria
the substitution of one part of speech for another
Periphrasis
substitution of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name or of a proper name for a quality associated with the name
Personification
investing abstractions for inanimate objects with human qualities or abilities
Hyperbole
the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect
Litotes
deliberate use of understatement
Rhetorical Question
asking a question, not for the purpose of eliciting an answer but for the purpose of asserting or denying something obliquely
Irony
use of a word in such a way as to convey a meaning opposite to the literal meaning of the word
Onomatopoeia
use of words whose sound echoes the sense
Oxymoron
the yoking of two terms which are ordinarily contradictory
Paradox
an apparently contradictory statement that nevertheless contains a measure of truth
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