Ancient River Valley Civilizations People and Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
civilization
a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology
domestication
the taming of animals for human use, such as work or as food
theocracy
leadership by a religious official
monarchy
leadership by a king or queen
polytheism
worship of multiple gods/goddesses
monotheism
worship of a single god/goddess
social class
The system of ranking people in order of status that may be based on money, occupation, education, or blood
hieroglyphics
pictographic Egyptian writing
Torah
the holy book of Judaism
cuneiform
Sumerian writing system, done by marking a clay tablet with a sharpened reed
barter
trading goods or services rather than using money
artisan
a worker skilled in a particular craft
cultural diffusion
spread of ideas, technology, language, religion, or other characteristics over a geographic area
specialization of labor
individuals performing different jobs that require unique skills
monsoon
a seasonal wind
Mandate of Heaven
the philosophy that rulers are given the right to rule by the deities as shown by good weather and harvests
dynasty
rulers descended from each other in a single family
Middle Kingdom
a name for China originating from the belief that it stood between heaven and earth
King Menes
leader who conquered northern Egypt, uniting the region for the first time
Amenhotep
Egyptian leader who tries to convert Egypt worshiping only the sun-god Aton
Ramses II
Egyptian king who fights with the Hittites over Syria, resulting in the first peace treaty
King Tut
young Egyptian king known for his splendid tomb
Howard Carter
man who discovered King Tut's tomb
Queen Hatshepsut
Egyptian queen who added to building projects during her reign
Champollion
Frenchman who was able to use the Rosetta Stone to translate hieroglyphics
Moses
The Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
King Hammurabi
king of the Babylonian empire who promotes an "eye for an eye" law system
Abraham
founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God's command
King David
Second king of Israel who united Israel and made Israel a powerful nation.
King Solomon
David's son, ruled Israel, built 1st temple
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