AP Biology Chapter 40: Intro to Animal Structure and Function Flashcards

Epithelial tissue
Terms Definitions
abdominal cavity
The body cavity in mammals that primarily houses parts of the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems. It is separated from the more cranial thoracic cavity by the diaphragm.
basal metabolic rate
The minimal number of kilocalories a resting endotherm requires to fuel itself for a given time.
basement membrane
The floor of an epithelial membrane on which the basal cells rest.
A type of connective tissue, consisting of living cells held in a rigid matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium salts.
A type of flexible connective tissue with an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in chondrin.
Cartilage cells.
collagenous fibers
Tough fibers of the extracellular matrix. They are made of collagen that are nonelastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise.
Organisms that do not produce enough metabolic heat to have much effect on body temperature.
elastic fibers
Long threads made of the protein elastin. Elastic fibers provide a rubbery quality to the extracellular matrix that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers.
Organisms with bodies that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism. This heat is usually used to maintain a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.
epithelial tissue
Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities.
A type of cell in loose connective tissue that secretes the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers.
interstitial fluid
The internal environment of vertebrates, consisting of the fluid filling the spaces between cells.
A type of fibrous connective tissue that joins bones together at joints.
A membrane that suspends many of the organs of vertebrates inside fluid-filled body cavities.
mucous membrane
Smooth moist epithelium that lines the digestive tract and air tubes leading to the lungs.
muscle tissue
Tissue consisting of long muscle cells that are capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses.
negative feedback
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
nervous tissue
Tissue made up of neurons and supportive cells.
A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its cell membrane.
Bone-forming cells that deposit a matrix of collagen.
skeletal muscle
Striated muscle generally responsible for the voluntary movements of the body.
smooth muscle
A type of muscle lacking the striations of skeletal and cardiac muscle because of the uniform distribution of myosin filaments in the cell.
standard metabolic rate
The metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, and nonstressed ectotherm.
A type of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
thoracic cavity
The body cavity in mammals that houses the lungs and heart. It is surrounded in part by ribs and separated from the lower abdominal cavity by the diaphragm.
glandular epithelia
epithelial cells specialized for secretion
recticular fibers
very thin collagenous fibers
loose connective tissue
The most widespread connective tissue in the vertebrate body. It binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organs in place.
engulf bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis
adipose tissue
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
fibrous connective tissue
A dense tissue with large numbers of collagenous fibers organized into parallel bundles. This is the dominant tissue in tendons and ligaments.
(haversian system), circular unit which is tightly packed together to form bone tissue
tapered at both ends
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