AP US History Vocab 8 :Jackonsian Democracy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams won after Henry Clay gave his support to Adams, securing his Presidency. When Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state, Jackson's supporters raged that a corrupt bargain had cheated Jackson of presidency.
Corrupt Bargain
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
Election of 1828
Van Buren renewed two-party competition. In the election a new party formed & gradually became known as the Democratic Party which made Jackson president & Calhoun VP. Opponents called themselves the National Republicans.
Jacksonian Democracy
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.
Extension of franchise
more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land
Spoils System
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
National Republicans
supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants
Caucus System
a system in which members of a political party meet to choose their party's candidate for president or decide policy
National Nominating Conventions
The governing authority of the political party. They give direction to the national party chairperson, the spokesperson of the party, and the person who heads the national committee, the governing body of the party. They are also the forums where presidential candidates are given the official nod by their parties.
Kitchen cabinet
Jackson's group of unofficial advisors consisting of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders that met to discuss current issues.
Peggy Eaton affair
Social scandal; John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake before her husband died in 1828; cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton; Jackson sided with Eatons; affair helped dissolve cabinet.
Whigs
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Maysville Road Veto
A veto by Jackson that prevented road in Kentucky from being funded by federal money since it only benefited Kentucky. This was a blow to Clay's American System, and it irritated the West.
Election of 1832
jackson won reelection in the midst of the nullification crisis while at odds with his Vice president John C. Calhoon
John Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
Nullification
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
Daniel Webster
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
Webster Hayne Debate
Debate between two prominent characters that began over an argument about temporarily stopping westward expansion and shifted to a fight over state rights vs. federal rights. Born from South Carolina, one claimed that the slowing of westward expansion was just another attempt of the east to protect their power. He hinted that the south and west should unite against the "northern tyranny." The other retaliated by challenging him to a debate over state rights vs. federal rights. The first accepted, and defended the theory of nullification. As a response to the first, the second delivered his "Second Reply to [the first]," taking two full afternoons to do so.
SC Exposition and Protest
an essay that had the idea that states had the right to nullify laws because the federal government gets power from state- avoids majority rule
Jefferson Day dinner
The dinner where Jackson announced by his toast that he believed that the federal government should have more power than the states. Further increased the hatred between Calhoun and Jackson. After this event, Calhoun ran for the Senate from South Carolina (and was elected) and resigned from the vice-presidency.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
a new tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.
Force Bill
authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void. The act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary.
Martin Van Buren
Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836
Henry Clay
A Kentucky American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
Nicholas Biddle
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Second Bank of the US
John C. Calhoun introduced this to help the financial stability of the country by issuing national currency and regulating state banks
Bank Recharter Bill
would have extended the life of the bank of the United States passed in 1836 when its charter expired. Jackson vetoed the bill
Veto Message
Jackson said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners in this
Pet Banks
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
Roger Taney
Andrew Jackson's attorney general and appointed by Jackson to succeed John Marshall
Specie Circular
it required that all public lands be purchased with "hard" money
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
When a second bridge was built close to another and violated the monopoly given in contract of the first bridge. The ruling was that the interests of the community are more important than interests of business
Panic of 1837
As a result of Jackson's economic policies, the United States went through another depression It resulted in the closure of many banks and record unemployment levels.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an "Indian Territory" where they would be "permanently" housed.
Black Hawk War
a Native American rebellion that started in Illinois and spread to Wisconsin territory. Ended when Illinois' militia members slaughtered more than 200 Sauk and Fox people
Worcester v. Georgia
case where the state of Georgia tried to remove the Cherokee Indians, but Congress said it was illegal to remove them off their own land
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Log Cabin Campaign of 1840
a name given to the Presidential campaign of William Henry Harrison.
Webster Ashburton Treaty (1842)
1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
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