AP Euro: The Social Transformation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Triangle of Trade
a system of interconnected trade routes that quadrupled foreign trade in Britain and France. [manufactured goods, slaves, & raw materials]
Middle Passage
the transportation of African slaves across the Atlantic on European trade ships.
manorial system
a traditional system in which land-owning lords divided vast estates into small plots of farm-able land for peasants and local consumption.
cash crops
crops grown for sale and export; a market-oriented approach
Enclosure Movement
hedges, fences, and walls built to keep the peasants from accessing the land.
cottage industry/putting-out system
the system of rural manufacturing, where merchants hire rural "at-home" workers to produce material.
Spinning Jenny
invented by James Hargreaves; greatly increased the amount of thread a single spinner could produce from cotton.
John Kay
invented the flying shuttle; helped speed up production.
flying shuttle
invented by John Kay; the machine which doubled the speed of spinning cotton on the loom.
cotton gin
invented by Eli Whitney; something that efficiently removed seed from raw cotton, increasing the the processing speed.
Eli Whitney
American, invented the cotton gin.
James Hargreaves
invented the spinning jenny.
James Wyatt
advanced and developed the steam engine, increased the power, therefore more efficiency.
Richard Arkwright
invented the water frame.
Water Frame
a mill powered by water. Invented by Arkwright.
Population in the late 1700s and throughout the 1800s
population EXPLOSION due to decrease in death rate, low infant mortality rates, improved sanitation, disappeared black death.
a revolution/movement towards capitalist ideals.
Charles "Turnip" Townsend
contributed to AGRICULTURAL revolution in England. Advocated use of turnip as a new crop, crop rotation, etc.
A common disease in the industrial cities
the cottage industry era that occurred before the industrial revolution.
a group of people who believed that the new machines would take away their jobs.
a political and ecnomic system that encouraged the nationalization of resources, capital and industry. [everyone equal]
Karl Marx
the father of socialism; believed that the capitalists were exploiting the workers of the world.
William Wordsworth
romantic writer; wrote about the destruction of the countryside and terrible conditions of workers.
Thomas Malthus
a leading British economist; believed that diseases and famine kept a balance in population growth. [very pessimistic]
Robert Owen
believed that the quality of the individual related directed to the quality of his/her surroundings; proposed improved living conditions; found the first
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