Sparknotes SAT: Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes Flashcards

Prefixes
Terms Definitions
a, an
not, without (apathy, analgesic)
ab, abs
away, from, separated (abdicate, abort)
ac, ad
to, toward (acclaim, accrete, adhere, adjoin)
ambi, amphi
both, around (ambiguous, ambidextrous, ambiance)
ante, anter
before, prior, in front of (antebellum, antechamber, anterior, antique)
ap, apo
away from, detached (apology, apostate, apostle)
cata, cat, cath
downwards, against, contrary to (cataclysm, catapult, catharsis)
circum
around (circumscribe, circumspect, circumference)
co, com, con
with, together (cohabitation, comfort, collude, colloquy)
contra
against (contradict, contrast)
de
down from, reverse, remove, out of, derived from (decapitate, declare, deface, delegate, delineate)
di, dif, dis
separation (disable, dispute, decrease, divert)
dys
bad, difficult (dysentery, dysphoria)
ec, ecto, ex
outside of, external, away from (eclectic, ecstasy, excursion, excuse, explode)
em, en, ent
in, into, within (encourage, endemic, embryo, embargo, enchant)
epi
over, above, around (epilogue, epitome, epidemic)
eu, ev
well, good (euphoria, eulogy, euphemism)
hyper
more, beyond normal, excessive (hyperkinetic, hypersonic)
hypo
less, under, below (hypochondria, hypothesis)
in, im, em, en
in, on, amongst, within (incarnate, insert, inspire, instruct, immolate, employ, enchant)
in, im
not (immeasurable, improper, inadequate)
men, ment
result, means of or product of an action (instrument, ailment, compartment, entanglement)
meta, meth
after, along with, transfer, changed (metabolism, metaphor, metaphysics, method)
mis
worse, badly (mischief, misadventure, mistake)
ob, of, op
toward, against, face-to-face (object, obnoxious, occupy, oppose)
par, para
beside, near, faulty (paradox, parasite, parody)
per
through, thoroughly (perceive, permit, perpetrate, persuade)
peri
around, near, beside (perimeter, peripheral)
pre
before, in front of (precept, precede, prediction, predominant, pregnant)
pro
earlier, before, forward (proclivity, pronounce, propose)
re
back, backwards (recant, recount, recur)
se
aside, away (secede, seclude, sever)
syl, sym, syn
united, together with, same (synonym, sympathy, syllogism)
tra, trans
beyond, across, through (transact, traverse, transport)
un
not (unable, undeniable, undone)
aco(u)
to hear, hearing (acoustic)
act, ag
to act, to do, to drive (active, agent)
agog(ue), agogy
to lead, leader, guiding, inducing (demagogue)
agon, agonist
struggle, content (agony, antagonist)
alg, algesia, algia
pain (analgesic)
am, amat
to love (amiable, amorous)
ambul
to walk (circumambulate, amble)
andro, andry
male (android, androgynous)
anim
mind, feeling, life (animate)
anthrop
man, human being (philanthropy, anthropology)
aqu
water (aquatic, aquarium)
arch
first, ancient, rule (archaic, archive)
aud
to hear, hearing, aloud (audible, audience)
aug, auct, auth, aux
to increase, to create (augment, author, auxiliary)
auto
of, by, for, or in oneself (autobiography, autocrat, autodidact)
bene, bon
good (bonus, benefit)
brac, brachi
the arm (brachiate, bracelet)
cant, cent
to sing (canticle, chant, recant, incantation)
cap, capt, cep, cept
box, to take, contain, seize (capture, receipt, capacious)
capit, capt, cipit
head, chief (capital, precipitate, chapter, capitulate)
carn
flesh (carnal, incarnate, carnivore)
caus, cuse
to cause (causal, excuse, accuse)
ced, cede, ceed, cess
to yield, to go (cede, accessible, necessary)
cern, cert, cret, crim
to separate, to distinguish (discern, uncertain)
chrom, chromat
color (chromatic, polychromatic)
chron
time (synchronous, chronicle)
cid, cide
to kill (regicide, suicide, genocide)
cis, cise
to cut (excise, scissors)
cog, cogit
to think (cognitive, cogent)
coll
glue, to stick together (colloquy, collage)
corp, cors
body (corporeal, corpulent)
cosm
universe, order (cosmic, cosmopolitan)
creant, cred, creed
to believe, to trust (credence, credit, incredible)
cruc, crus
cross, significant (crux, crusade, crucial)
de, div
concerning God or deities (divine, deity)
dic, dict, diction
to say, speech, word (dictate, indicate, edict, benediction)
doc, doct, dog, dox
to teach, learning (doctrine, dogma, orthodox)
dom
house, master (domestic, dominate)
equ, qui
equal, even (equate, adequate, equinox)
esthe, esthesia
to feel, sensation (anesthesia, esthetics)
fid, fidel
faith, trust (fidelity, confidence, infidel)
fin, finite
end, purpose (infinite, definite)
flu, fluor, flux, fluv
to flow (affluence, fluid, superfluous)
for, fort
strong (fortress, enforce, comfort)
fract, frag, frang, fring
to shatter (fracture, fragment, fragile, refract)
gen, gon
birth, race, kind (genetic, gonad, congenital, gender)
ger, gest
to carry, to produce (gestate, gesture, digest)
grad, grade, gress
to step, a degree or grade (gradual, degree, progress)
gram, graph
a written record, to write (telegram, autograph)
grat
pleasing, thankful (gratitude, congratulate, ingratiate)
greg
society, group (aggregate, gregarious)
gynec, gyn, gynist
female (gynecologist, misogyny)
hier, hieratic
holy, sacred (hierarchy, hieroglyphic)
hol
whole (holistic, hologram(
hydr, hydro
water, liquid (hydraulics, hydrant)
ideo
idea, philosophy (ideology, idol, ideal)
idi, idio
personal, private (idiosyncratic, idiom)
iso
equal, similar (isometric, isotope)
ject, jet
to throw (eject, inject, jettison, projectile)
jud, jur, just
right, law (jury, judgment, judicious, injury, perjury)
jug, junct
a link, to join (juncture, conjunction, conjugate)
kine, kinesia, kinesis
movement, energy (kinetic, cinema)
lat, late, lation
to bear, to carry (collate, correlate, legislate, translate)
lect, leg, lig
to choose, to read (legible, intelligent, dialect, collect)
lev, lieve, life
to lift, light in weight (alleviate, elevator, relief)
lign, line
line (delineate, lineage)
locut, loqu, loquy
to speak, speech (locution, circumlocution, eloquent, ventriloquist)
log, logue, logy, lexico
speech, word, study of (logic, lecture, analogy)
luc, lumin, lux
light, to shine (illuminate, lucent, luminary, elucidate)
macro
large (macrocosm)
mal
bad (malady, malcontent, malefactor)
medi, meso, mid
in the middle of (intermediate, mediocre, medium)
micro
small (microscope)
mis
hate (misanthrope, misogyny)
mor, mort
death (mortal, mortician, mortify)
neg
to deny (negate, neglect, renege)
neo
new (neologism, neonate)
noct, nox
night (nocturnal, equinox)
nom, num
law (nomad, economy, astronomy)
od, odia
smell (odor, odious)
opt, optic
eye, vision (panopticon, optics,)
ov, ovul
egg, egg-shaped (oval, ovulate)
par, pare
equal (pair, parity, peer, compare)
part, patri
father (patriot, patronage, patriarch, paternal)
path, pathic, pathy
emotion, suffering )pathological, pathetic, sympathy, empathy)
pel, puls
to drive, driven (pulse, compulsion, expel, impulse)
phil, philia
love, fondness for (philosophy, philanthropy, philander, philology)
phob, phobo
fear (phobia)
plaud, plaus, plod, plos
to make a loud noise (applaud, explode)
plen, plet
to fill, full (plentiful, plethora, replenish)
prim, prin
first (primary, primate, premier)
pur, purg
to clear of guilt, to get rid of something unwanted (purge, pure, expurgate, purgatory)
quest, quir, quisit
to ask (request, inquest, question, acquire, conquer)
qui, quil, quit
rest (quiet, quit, acquiesce, acquit)
rad, radic
root (radical, eradicate)
rati, reas
to think, calculate (rate, ratify, rational, reasonable)
rect, reg, rig
to rule or guide, proper, straight (rectify, regal, region, regulate, rigorous)
rupt
to break, to sever (rupture, abrupt, disrupt, corrupt, interrupt)
salu, salv
safety, health (salubrious, salvage, salutary)
scrib, scribe, script
to write, something written (circumscribe, ascribe, describe, inscribe, prescribe)
secut, sequ
to follow, to ensue (sequence, consequence, execute, consecutive)
sen, senil
old, old age (senior, senator, senescence)
ser, sor
a series, attachment (serial, desert, assert)
solute, solv
to release, to loosen, to free (dissolve, absolute, insoluble)
soph, sophy
wisdom (philosophy, sophisticated)
spec, spect, spic
to look, to see (aspect, specific, spectator, spectrum, specimen)
spir, spire
to breathe, breath, spirit (aspire, expire, conspire, transpire)
stant, stat, stit
to stand, to stay, to state (assistant, consistent, constant, status, stance, destiny)
stru, struct
to build, a building or pattern (destructive, instruct, obstruct, structural)
tact, tang, teg, ting
to touch (tactile, taste, tangible, contact, contingent)
temper, tempor, temp
time, balance (temporize, temporary, contemplate, temperature)
ten, tain, tent, tin
to hold (tenable, tenacious, tenet, contain, detain)
tend, tens
to stretch (extend, distend, tension, tendril)
top, tope, topy
place (topic, topology, utopia)
tract, treat
to draw, to extend, to attract (extract, treatise, contract, retreat, subtract)
trib, tribe, trit
to rub, to wear down (tribulation, trite, attrition)
trop, tropic, tropy
to turn, a change or turn (trope, tropic, entropy)
troub, turb
confusion, whirling (disturb, perturb, turbine, turbulence)
vac, van, vast, void
empty, desolate (vacuum, vacant, vanity, devastate, avoid)
vail, val
to be strong, to be worthy (valiant, valor, validate, valence)
ver, veri
true (veracious, verdict, verify)
vit, viv
life, to live (vital, survive, viable, vivify)
voc, vok, vow
voice, to call or summon (vocalize, vociferous, avow, equivocate)
vol
will, desire, wish (volition, volunteer, involuntary)
vor, vorous, vour
to eat, to swallow (voracious, carnivorous)
xene, xeno, xeny
foreign (xenophobe, xenogamy)
zoa, zo, zoo, zoon
life, living (zoo, zodiac, metazoan)
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