De Smet Sophmore 1st Semester AP World History Exam Flashcards

Mongol Empire
Terms Definitions
Tughril Beg
Saljuq leader recognized by the Abbasid caliph as Sultan consolidated his hold over the Abbasid capital of Baghdad, his successors extended Turkish rule to Syria
Mahmud of Ghanzi
raided India, his successors set up the Sultanate of Delhi
Chinggis Khan (Temujin)
the universal ruler
Marco Polo
served as an administrator in the city of Yang Zhou during the reign of Khubilai Khan
Khubilai Khan
consolidated Mongol rule in China, one of the Ghengis Khan's grandsons although he was also a conqueror he took interest in cultural matters and improved the well being of his people, actively promoted Buddhism, and also provided support for Daoist and Christians, Marco Polo praised him for his generosity
Brother of Khubilai Khan and he toppled the Abbasid empire and established the ilkahnate of Persia, luted Baghdad and executed the caliph and massacred over 200,000 people
Timur I- Lang Nomadic conqueror from the steppes and he tried to emulate Genghis Khan, he was called Timur the Lame, caresmatically leader and ferocious warrior, came from a family of minor nobility,
Sultan Mehmed II
known as Mehmed the Conqueror captured the Byzantine capital of Constantinople made the city his own capital under the Turkish name of Istanbul from which the Ottomans quickly absorbed the remainder of the Byzantine empire
Turks -
Nomadic peoples of the steppes of central Asia who never formed a single group and always fought bitterly with one another, they all spoke related languages
Yurts -
Wool tents that the nomadic peoples used
Kumiss -
Alcoholic drink made by fermenting mare's milk to potent concoction
religious specialists who possessed supernatural powers, communicated with the gods and nature spirits, invoked divine aid on behalf on their communities, and informed the people of the gods will
means ruler, were leaders of nomadic tribes but usually ruled through leaders of other allied tribes
Saljuq Turks
Turkish peoples who migrated into the rich land of Anatolia, and inflicted a defeat on the Byzantine Empire, transformed Anatolia, made many laws and set up their own political and social institutions
means chiefdom or ruler
famous battle spot where the Saljuq Forces inflicted a devastating defeat on the Byzantine empire and took the Byzantine emperor captive
Mongol capital established by Genghis Khan that symbolized a source of Mongol authority superior to the clan or tribe
means city of the Khan, it the Jurchen capital and served as the Mongol capital in Chin
a group of Mongols that continued to prevail in central Asia even after the decline of the rest of the Mongol dynasties, continued to threaten northwestern borders of China until the 18th century
Golden Horde -
Mongols, prized steppes north of the Black sea because they were good pasture lands for their horses, mounted raids on Russia, extracted tribute from Russian cities
Yuan Dynasty
Ruled by Khublai Kahn until 1368.
Ilkhanate of Persia
started by Khublai's brother Hulegu; fell due to economic difficulties.
Lamaist Buddhism
favored Mongol rule and tried to help them.
Uighur Turks
clerks, secretaries, administrators of Mongol empire.
Bubonic plague
Epidemic disease mostly caused collapse of Chinese Mongol empire; work shortage because of all the lost people.
Ottoman Turks
founded by Osman, fought against Balkins in 1350s.
Renamed Constantinople after Ottomans conquest in 1453.
The Lion prince of the thirteenth century, founder of Mali. Reigned 1230-1255. Made Mali the wealthiest land in Sub-Saharan Africa
Mansa Musa
Sundiata's grand nephew. Reigned from 1312-1337 during the high point of the empire. Encouraged Islam
Ibn Battuta
lived from 1304 to 1396. Most known Muslim traveler. Encouraged highly tradition Islam, especially the control of women
Ali ibn Muhammad
Led the Zanj slave revolt in 869 and took the city of Basra in southern Mesopotamia. Defeated in 883
professional singers and story tellers in Africa
Bananas -
introduced to Africa by the Maleys seafarers that colonized Madagascar, 300-500. Increased Bantu expansion
Kin-based societies
Bantu peoples organized themselves into groups of around 100 people. Male heads of family formed a ruling council led by Chief. Most people were related
When a ran an Island, mostly in the Pacific Ocean
Kingdom of Kongo
By the 14th century controlled modern day Congo and Angola. Governed with a bureaucracy and a king. Currency was cowries. Powerful to the 17th century
quickened the pace of transportation and communication across the Sahara desert
A long established trading center along the Niger river. Gateway to the Niger river valley
Kingdom of Ghana
founded in the 4th or 5th century. Most important commercial center in west Africa. Traded in gold especially. Kings converted to Islam in the 10th century. Collapsed in the 13th century after invasions from nomads in the Sahara
Capital city of the Kingdom of Ghana. Had Qadis and Muslim scholars
Founded by Sundiata. Controlled the area around the Niger and Senegal rivers. The capital was Niani. Encouraged Islam. Falls in the 15th century
Swahili -
Arabic term meaning coasters, chiefs gained power through taxing trade on ports, ports developed into city-states governed by kings.
Kilwa -
population of 12000, prospered after being sacked by Portuguese mariners. Thriving city with stone cities and mosques.
Zimbabwe -
refers to the dwelling of a chief. Organized flow of slaves and gold and ivory.
Age grades -
People assumed responsibilities and tasks appropriate for their age, age groups formed tight circle of friends.
Zanj revolt
Slave revolt in Mesopotamia during the tenth century. They were black slaves from the Swahili coast, and organized by Ali Bin Muhammad.
mediated between humanity and supernatural, interpreted cause of misfortune, and used medicine and rituals to eliminate problems. Had an understanding of networks.
Axum -
displace Kush as Egypt's principal link to the South. Christian kingdom.
Solomonic dynasty
Dynasty that claimed descent from Israelite kings. 13th century.
Kebra Negast
The fictional account of lineage popular with Rastafarians and influenced reggae music. Means the glory of kings.
Marco Polo
Venetian, best known traveler of Mongol times. His stories influenced European readers and he came from a family of merchants.
Otto I
Established himself as king in northern Gemany, declared emperor by Pope John XII, first ruler of holy roman Empire. From Saxony.
Pope John XII
Declared Otto I emperor of Holy Roman Empire.
Henry IV
Excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII who wanted an end to the practice of lay investiture (selection of church officials by rulers).
Frederick Babarossa
Sought to absorb Lombardy in North Italy. Known as the Red Beard.
Hugh Capet
founded Capetian dynasty that lasted three centuries.
Duke William of Normandy
Invaded England ruled the Angles, the Saxons, and Germanic peoples. Known as William the Conqueror.
King Louis IX
King of France who maintained a permanent army.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
liberally supported romantic poets and entertainers, was most celebrated woman of her day.
St. Thomas Aquinas
famous theologian who was a scholastic theologian.
St. Dominic
founded the orders of mendicants (beggars) with St. Francis. A Dominican friar. No personal possessions begged for food.
St. Francis
founded orders of mendicants (beggars) with St. Dominic. Franciscan. No personal possessions begged for food. Responded to social and economic developments in Europe.
Pope Innocent III
In the 13th century, he called for a military campaign to destroy the Cathars
Eric the Red
Discovered Greenland and established a small colony there. Father of Leif Ericsson
Leif Ericsson
Son of Eric the Red. Led an exploratory party south and west of Greenland, arriving in modern Newfoundland in Canada.
Robert Guiscard
Norman Adventurer. He carved out a state for himself in southern Italy, while his brother Roger undertook the conquest of Sicily.
Pope Urban II
Launched the crusades in 1095. While meeting with bishops at the Council of Clermont, he called for Christian knights to take up arms and seize the holy land, he promised salvation for all those who died during the campaign.
Peter the Hermit
zealous preacher who traveled throughout France, Germany, and the Low Countries whipping up support among popular audiences. Organized a rag tag army of poor knights and enthusiastic peasants.
recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 and his victories sealed the fate of Christian forces in the eastern Mediterranean.
Holy Roman Empire
Only an empire in name, in reality it was a regional state ruling Germany. It only had influence intermittently in eastern Europe and Italy. Failed to bring imperial unity to western Europe.
Investiture contest -
contest between the popes and the emperors. Neither were powerful enough to dominate the other.
Capetian dynasty -
started by Hugh Capet, gradually expanded, and centralized power and authority in France.
Normans -
The founders of the English monarchy. Descendants of Vikings. Within Normandy the dukes built a tightly centralized state.
Champagne fairs
Fairs sponsored by the counts of Champagne that operated almost year-round and served as vast marketplaces where merchants from all of Europe compared and exchanged goods
Hanseatic League
Also known as Hansa, A well developed trade network which was an association of trading cities stretching from Novgorod to London and embracing all significant commercial centers of Poland, northern Germany, and Scandinavia. Dominated in grain, fish, furs, timber, and pitch. Fairs of Champagne and Rhine, the Danube, and other major rivers linked Hansa trade network with Mediterranean.
A class of traveling poets, minstrels, and entertainers whom aristocratic women enthusiastically patronized. They drew inspiration from a long tradition of love poetry produced in nearby Muslim Spain
Regulated the production and sale of goods within merchants and workers jurisdictions. They established standards of quality for manufactured goods, and determined the prices at which members had to sell their products.
Cathedral Schools
schools based in cathedrals, curriculum of Latin writings
academic guilds with charters guaranteeing their rights, transformed cathedral schools into universities
sought to synthesize the beliefs and values of Christianity with the logical rigor of Greek philosophy, most famous was St. Thomas Aquinas
holy rituals that bring spiritual blessings on the observants
human beings who had led such exemplary lives that God held them in special esteem, enjoyed special influence with heavenly authroities
believed to retain the powers associated with the holy individuals who owned them, ex: clothes, locks of hair, teeth, bones
Pilgrimages -
Pilgrims trekking long distances to honor the saints the relics represented. They visited two European cities in particular---Rome in Italy and Compostela in Spain--- and some ventured even farther to Jerusalem and the holy land of Christian origins.
A group of people, who were most active in southern France and northern Italy, that despised the Roman Catholic clergy as immoral and corrupt, and they advocated modest and simple lives. They asserted the right of the laity to preach and administer sacraments and they did not hesitate to criticize the church on the basis of biblical teachings
(sometimes called Albigensians) They adopted the teachings of heretical groups in eastern Europe, such as the Bogomils, who viewed the world as the site of an unrelenting, cosmic struggle between the forces of good and evil. They considered the material world evil and advocated an ascetic, pure, spiritual existence
Discovered by Leif Ericsson at modern Newfoundland in Canada. It was named after the wild grapes growing in the region
Teutonic knights
a prominent military-religious order. They were most active in the Baltic region. They waged military campaigns against the pagan Slavic peoples during the 12thand 13th centuries. Founded churches and monasteries.
the reconquest of Spain. Process began in the 1060s from Christian toeholds. Finished in 1492 when Christian forces conquered Granada.
refers to holy war. Derives from Latin word crux (cross). When pope declared crusade warriors took up their cross and fought on behalf of Christianity. Term generally refers to the huge expeditions that Roman Catholic Christians mounted in an effort to recapture Palestine.
began migrating into central Mexico around 8th century. They tapped waters of nearby River Tula to irrigate crops. High point supported population of 60,000 people. Maintained large and powerful army
Mexica -
migrants who were drawn to central Mexico from northwestern regions in mid 13th century, they're often referred to as the Aztecs, "the place of the seven legendary caves". Had reputation for capturing neighboring women and seizing land, capital was Tenochtitlan
son god and patron deity of the Mexica, they sacrificed humans to this god
Mexica god, "feathered serpent", who was borrowed from the Toltecs. Had a reputation for supporting arts, crafts, and agriculture
lived in what is now the American southwest. Tapped rivers in the dry area to cultivate crops, mostly maize. Cultivated beaqns, squashes, and sunflowers. By about 700 C.E. these people constructed stone and adobe buildings
Large agricultural society in the woodlands east of the Mississippi, cultivated maize and beans for the bulk of their diet. By 1400, five Iroquois nations had emerged. Women were in charge of the villages and longhouses and supervised cultivation of fields. Men were in charge of affairs outside of the village—war, hunting, and fishing.
settled around Lake Titicaca about the mid-13th century. Pachacuti ("Earthshaker") helped expand their authority. Inca originally was the title of the rulers of a small kingdom in the valley of Cuzco, modern usage of the word refers to all subjects of the Inca empire. Built an extensive road system that was the best one constructed before modern times.
capital of the Mexica empire on in island of Lake Texcoco.
large and fertile plots of land created from the muck of the lake's bottom
Quipu -
a mnemonic aid used by Incan bureaucrats and administrators to keep track of responsibilities. Consisted of several cords of various lengths and colors attached to a much larger cord. Recorded statistical information that dealt with population, state property, taxes, and labor services.
Cahokia Mounds
Largest surviving mound structure at Cahokia near East St. Louis, Illinois. Built by the Iroquois people and used for ceremonies, rituals, dwellings, and burial sites.
Polynesian temple structure with terraced floors with a designated sacred space.
Nan Madol
cite of a massive stone palace and administrative center built by the powerful Sandeleur dynasty. Built from 1200-1600 and included 93 artificial islets protected by seawalls and breakwaters on 3 sides.Kapu
term meaning "taboo"
Ibn Battuta
Islamic world traveler. Served as qadi (judge) in India for eight years. Docuements of his adventures stands with Marco Polo's book among the classical works of travel literature.
Marco Polo
best known long-distance traveler of Mongol times. (1253 - 1324) Company to Khubilai khan in China. Recounted his stories while imprisoned during a conflict between Venice and Genoa
Rabban Sauma
Nestorian Christian priest who met with the kings of France and England, the pope, and other officials in hope to gain the support of the Europeans for the ilkhan of Persia.
John of Montecorvino
Roman Catholic missionary to China. Arrived in China in 1291, died there in 1328. Translated New Testament and book of Psalms into Turkish. Claimed to have baptized large amounts of people in China.
Hongwu -
became emperor in 1368 after the Mongol's Yuan dynasty fell, he started the Ming dynasty and immediately began to centralize his rule and model his government after past Chinese dynasties.
Zheng He
Muslim, eunuch admiral from Yunnan and trusted advisor of Yongle. Led 7 voyages with mammoth "treasure ships."
Prince Henry
"Prince Henrique of Portugal" also known as Prince Henry the Navigator, embarked on an ambitious campaign to spread Christianity and increase Portuguese influence on the seas.
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese mariner who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean.
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese sailor who departed Portugal with the intention of sailing to India. He took advantage of seasonal monsoon winds and sailed across the Arabian Sea to India. He returned to Lisbon from Calicut with a hugely profitable cargo of pepper and spices.
Fernando and Isabel-
1469, united the two wealthiest and most important Iberian realms; they underwrote Columbus's voyage to India
Christopher Columbus-
searched for a west sea route to reach Asian markets; king of Portugal declined it but Fernando and Isabel underwrote the voyage; set sail in 1492 and landed in San Salvador; first discovery of the western world
an Islamic judge, was one of Ibn Battuta's government positions in the lands he visited
missionaries that spread Islamic values through their missionary activities, emphasized piety and devotion to Allah, took a flexible approach to lands where they won converts
became the principal clearinghouse of trade in the eastern Indian Ocean, markets on Strait of Melaka
Little Ice Age
a five hundred year period where the earth experienced cooler temperatures and shorter growing seasons leading to lower agricultural production.
Black Death
also known as the Bubonic plague, an epidemic that spread across Europe and Asia and killed 60 to 70 percent of its human victims.
Ming dynasty
this dynasty took control after the failed Mongol occupation of China. The Ming created a centralized government, an economic recovery and a cultural revival in China.
the conquering of the kingdom of Granada and absorbing it into the state controlled by Fernando and Isabel.
French translation of "rebirth," it was a rebirth of the culture and in Europe including art and architecture.
people who are interested in humanities - literature, history, and moral philosophy.
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