Maggie APUSH Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Antinomianism (Anne Hutchinson)
The theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture).
Evangelism
The enthusiastic preaching or proclamation of the Christian gospel.
Indentured Servitude
The system of temporary servitude, where young men and women bound themselves to masters for fixed terms of servitude (four to five years), in exchange for passage to America, food and shelter. This method of labor was one of the largest elements of colonial population in America.
Joint-Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Mercantilism
An economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests.
Middle Passage
The middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas.
Primogeniture
Seniority by birth; state of being the first-born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents).
Proprietary Colony
English colony in which the king gave land to proprietors in exchange for a yearly payment.
Royal Colony
Colony under the direct control of the English Crown.
Salutary Neglect
Idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference.
Slavery in the English Colonies
Blacks were brought to America by force to be slaves for the people of English Colonies.
Smallpox
An epidemic that ravaged Native Americans living along the New England coast in 1616.
Tariffs
Taxes on imports or exports.
Vice-Admiralty Courts (Navigation Acts)
Hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until proven innocent.
Bacon's Rebellion
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.
Glorious Revolution
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Great Awakening
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
Great Migration (1630-1642)
Settlement of over twenty thousand Puritans in Massachusetts Bay and other parts of New England between 1630 and 1642.
King Philip's War
Late 1670's in New England; series of battles in New Hampshire b/w colonists and Wampanoag, led by a chief known as King Philip; war was started when Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians; colonists won with help of Mohawks, which opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
King William's War
One of the four wars fought between France, Spain, England and France's indian allies for control of North America. No major battles fought but brought terrifying indian raids.
Pequot War
1637- war between the colonists and the Pequot tribe- ended in destruction of the tribe and uneasy peace.
Salem Witchcraft Trials
Hysteria coming from people being accused of witchcraft, arrested and put to death that inspired many to return to a strict Puritan lifestyle.
Spanish Armada Defeat of 1588
Spain's so-called "Invincible Armada" is defeated by an English naval force under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake. Queen Elizabeth's decisive defeat of the Invincible Armada made England a world-class power and introduced effective long-range weapons into naval warfare for the first time, ending the era of boarding and close-quarter fighting.
The Starving Time
1609-1610; when the colony of Jamestown was in such short supply that graves were robbed, corpses were eaten, and cannibalism was used due to the colonist's inability to make their own food.
Stono Uprising
1739: an insurrection of slaves; about 20 slaves met near the Stono River outside Charleston, South Carolina, they stole guns and ammunition, they killed storekeepers, planters, and liberated a number of slaves. When these rebels were captured, they were executed. As a result of the Stono uprising, many colonies passed more restrictive laws to govern the behavior of slaves.
Absolutists (monarchists)
Monarchists who believed that the government got its power from God.
Congregationalists
Churches started in Massachusetts Bay colony follow protestant values and independently runs their own affairs. From 1620 on.
Conquistadors
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Cortes, Hernandes; Pizarro, Francisco.)
Oliver Cromwell
Englishman; led the army to overthrow King Charles I and was successful in 1646. Cromwell ruled England in an almost democratic style until his death. His uprising drew English attention away from Jamestown and the other American colonies.
Jonathon Edwards
"Sinners in the hands of an angry God" believed in the salvation through good works and the need for complete dependence on the Gods grace and lurid details of the landscape of hell.
Benjamin Franklin
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Cotton Mather
Puritan theologian, who urged the inoculation against smallpox, played a role in Salem Witch Trials.
Pilgrims
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
Pocahontas
A Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617).
Powhatans
A group of Indians that helped the Jamestown settlers until the settlers demanded food from them.
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
Separatists
Sub-group of the Puritans who vowed to break completely with the Church of England.
John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia.
George Whitefield
One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.
Roger Williams
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Charter Colony
Established by groups of settlers who were granted charters by the king.
The Chesapeake
The region of Virginia and Maryland. In contrast to New England, this region was distinguished by indentured servants, cash crops, and African slavery.
Harvard College
First college in New World. Established by Puritans to train ministers.
Jamestown
First permanent colony for the British, original settlers suffered from disease, economy stabled after tobacco was cultivated; this colony was burnt to the ground twice.
The Lower South
Includes the Carolinas and Georgia. Georgia was a buffer colony, and opulent South Carolina's cash crop was mainly rice. North Carolina broke off due to tensions.
Maryland
The first colony established for Catholics.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Plymouth merged w/ it, they wanted to be a harmonious community of ppl who agreed to work together.
Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware.
New England
A region of northeastern United States comprising Maine and New Hampshire and Vermont and Massachusetts and Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New York (New Amsterdam)
British Colony in America; Religious tolerance and property protection were promised to the people of New York.
Pennsylvania
In 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers.
Plymouth
Established by religious seperatists seeking a free place from the Church of England; sailed on the Mayflower in 1620 after getting a charter from the Virginia Company; by the end of the century, Plymouth had become the colony of Massachusetts.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
Halfway Covenant
A Puritan church policy of 1662, which allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members. Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
House of Burgesses 1619
The first form of government that met in Jamestown; Made laws for Virginia.
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
New England Confederation
New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
Adams' "midnight appointments"
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Assembly Line
Production system created by Henry Ford to make goods faster by moving parts on a conveyor belt past workers.
Boom and Bust Cycles
Problem of free-market capitalism; left to its own under capitalism, the economy is either in a good blast or in a recession or depression; distribution of goods is based on ones ability to pay and not on ones needs.
Clipper Ships
American boats, built during the 1840's in Boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers.
Cult of Domesticity
The ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house.
First Bank of the United States
Created in 1791 by Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of Treasury, the Bank of the United States was chartered for 20 years and was to have $10mil, 1/5 of which was to be owned by the federal government.
Enumerated Powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Executive Privilege
The right to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
Gospel of Wealth
The belief that the rich should give back to society.
Gilded Age
Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization.
Horizontal Integration
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Implied Powers
Powers that congress has that are not stated explicitly in the constitution.
Impressment
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
Interchangeable Parts
Uniform pieces that can be made in large quantities to replace other identical pieces.
Judicial Review
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional.
Lowell System
Dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills.
Manifest Destiny
The belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean.
Market Economy
Economic system in which decisions on production and consumption of goods and services are based on voluntary exchange in markets.
Popular Sovereignty
The idea that political authority belongs to the people.
Second Bank of the United States
Chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
Social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Standard Oil
Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by Rockefeller.
Transatlantic Cable
Invented by Cyrus W. Fields; made it possible to send messages across the seas in an instant's time.
US Steel Corporation
JP Morgan bought out Carnegie Steel and expanded the trust.
Underground Railroad
A system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada.
Utopian Communities
Experimental communities designed to be perfect societies.
Virtual Representation
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Women's Rights Movement
An organized campaign to win property, education, and other rights for women. (Example: Seneca Falls Convention)
Yellow Journalism
Sensational stories that were often biased or untrue.
Atlanta Exposition/Compromise
Booker T. Washington's statement of belief that African Americans needed to gain economic rights before being concerned with gaining political rights.
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
Bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans.
Boston Tea Party
1773 - Protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor.
Boxer Rebellion
A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese people who wanted to throw the foreigners out.
British Burn Washington DC
British entered capital and set fire to many public buildings such as the Capital and the White House.
Chesapeake Affair
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.
Constitutional Convention of 1787
Delegates met to revise the Articles of Confederation, replacing it w/ Constitution and the Bill of Rights; formed stronger central government.
"Cross of Gold" Speech
An address given by William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic presidential nominee during the national convention of the Democratic party, it criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver. His beliefs were popular with debt-ridden farmers.
Declaratory Act
In 1766, the English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed the Declaratory Act. This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." It is important in history because it stopped the violence and rebellions against the tax on stamps. Also, it restarted trade with England, which had temporarily stopped as a defiant reaction to the Stamp Act.
Frederick Douglas
Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker.
"Era of Good Feelings"
Refers to the period after the War of 1812 during the presidency of James Monroe, when competition among political parties was at a low ebb.
Embargo Act
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Federalist Papers
Series of essays written by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.
Filipino Insurrection
American military american compaign that supressed the philipine movement for independence after the Spanish American War.
Fisk-Gould Scandal
Black Friday, September 24, 1869 also known as the Fisk/Gould scandal, was a financial panic in the United States caused by two speculators' efforts to corner the gold market on the New York Gold Exchange. It was one of several scandals that rocked the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
German and Irish Immigration
Wave of German/Irish immigration in 1840s-50s that was met with wave of resentment due to competition for jobs. Irish especially, for Catholicism.
California Gold Rush
Migration of thousands of people to California (in 1849) after gold was discovered there.
Harrison at Tippecanoe Creek
Harrison defeat Tecumseh at Battle of Tippecanoe. (1811)
Hartford Convention
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse.
Haymarket Square Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
Indian Removal
The nineteenth century policy of the government of the US to remove Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river.
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965.
King George's War
The third Anglo-French war in North America (1744-1748), part of the European conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
During the race to become Senator Lincoln asked to have multiple debates with Douglas. Certain topics of these debates were slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed. Although Lincoln lost the election to Douglas, he was known throughout the country because of the debates.
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Maysville Road Veto
A veto by Jackson that prevented the Maysville road from being funded by federal money since it only benefited Kentucky. This was a blow to Clay's American System, and it irritated the West.
Mexican-American War
President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, America ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
New Jersey and Virginia Plans
Merged to form the Great Compromise.
Panic of 1837
Economic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks' and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation.
Pullman Strike
1894 railway workers strike for higher wages against the Pullman Company, in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction (a court order to stop something) to prevent the strike.
Quebec Act
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
Queen Anne's War
A contest among Europe's empire builders for territory, established England as the primary colonial power in North America.
Reform Movements
Work to change society for the better. Focused on improving conditions for the poor, enslaved, imprisoned, women, and disabled.
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Seward Purchase of Alaska
1867 - Secretary of State William Seward signed a treaty with Russia giving "Seward's Icebox" to the United States for $7.2 million.
Shays' Rebellion
Massachusetts' uprising in 1786 in which debtors demanded the state issue paper money, reduce taxes and suspend property seizures.
Sherman's March through Georgia
(1864-1865) Union General William Tecmseh Sherman's destructive March through Georgia. An early instance of "Total war", puposely targeting infrastucture and civialian property to diminish moral and undercut the confederate war effort.
Sioux Wars
The Sioux Wars lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians were led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer's forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indian were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Written in 1828 by Vice-President John C. Calhoun of South Carolina to protest the so-called Tariff of Abominations, which seemed to favor northern industry; introduced the concept of state interposition and became the basis for South Carolina's Nullification Doctrine of 1833.
South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them.
Spanish-American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Townshend Acts
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea.
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Sojourner Truth
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883).
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913).
Tripoli War
War with a Barbary state concerning America's refusal to pay a fee to pass through the Mediterranean, ends in 1805 with defeat of pirates (Jefferson Administration), gave us the right to use the mediterrian, a war that first showed that the american army may not be as powerful and independant as we thought.
USS Maine
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
A novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral.
Undeclared Naval War with France
Late 1790s - Beginning in 1794, the French had began seizing American vessels in retaliation for Jay's Treaty, so Congress responded by ordering the navy to attack any French ships on the American coast. The conflict became especially violent after the X,Y, Z Affair. A peace convention in 1800 with the newly installed dictator, Napoleon, ended the conflict.
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
Whiskey Rebellion
A protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy.
XYZ Affair
France and England start to seize American ships; starts an "unofficial war" between America and France; Causes the creation of 33 ships for a navy and ends long treaty with France.
John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Jane Addams
an American social worker, sociologist, philosopher and reformer; Founded the Hull House.
American Antislavery Society
Abolitionist society that included many well-known whites and also former slaves such as Douglass; held meetings in many parts of the country and published writings speaking out against slavery.
American Federation of Labor
A union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration.
Susan B Anthony
Social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association.
Antifederalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation.
Antimasonic Party
A 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party.
Chester A Arthur
An honorable man but firmly believed in the spoils system; eventually demolished it; took Rutherford B Hayes place when he was assassinated.
Elizabeth Blackwell
First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S.
John Brown
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925).
James Buchanan
The 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
Aaron Burr
served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.
John Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons".
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce
The chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Indians to a reservation in Idaho. For his principled resistance to the removal, he became renowned as a humanitarian and peacemaker.
Civil Service Commission
Created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees.
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Coxey's Army
A protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time.
Eugene V Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Stephen Douglas
Political who debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election - advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850.
Thomas A Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Millard Fillmore
Successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
First Continental Congress
Delegates from all colonies except Georgia met to discuss problems with Britain and to promote independence.
Ben Franklin
Highly respected scientist and one of the wealthiest men in Pennsylvania. Helped found UPENN, served as agent in London, and Pennsylvania. Became convinced the colonies needed to revolt. Served as ambassador to France during the war, helped write the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and helped negotiate the peace treaty ending the revolution.
Free Soil Party
Political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery.
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815).
James Garfield
1881, Republican, Greenback Labor Party, Republican - protective tariff, Democrats - revenue tariff, shot by Julius Guiteau (mental unstable, thought unfair spoils system).
Citizen Edmond Genet
French government representative asking for assistance for the French Revolution. Sparked support for the French Revolution and led to the creation of the Democratic-Republican party.
George III
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads.
Ulysses S Grant
An American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Greenback Party
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars.
Rutherford B Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history.
William Randolph Hearst
United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951). ("Give me the picture,and ill furnish the war.")
Patrick Henry
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with the "Give me liberty or give me death" speech.
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Thomas Jefferson
George Washington's first secretary of state, took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality.
Andrew Johnson
vice president who took over after Lincoln's assassination; an ex-Democrat with little sympathy for former slaves; his battles with Radical Republicans resulted in his impeachment in 1868. He avoided conviction and removal from office by one vote.
Knights of Labor
One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories.
Know-Nothing Party
Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue.
Ku Klux Klan
Founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American.
Liberty Party
A political party that started during the two party systems in the 1840's.The party's main platform was bringing an end to slavery by political and legal means. The party was originally part of the American Anti-slavery however; they split because they believed there was a more practical way to end slavery than Garrison's moral crusade.
Abraham Lincoln
One of the most skillful politicians in Republican party. Lawyer. Tried to gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. The Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted much attention. Lincoln's attacks on slavery made him nationally known. He felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
US Admiral who encouraged the US to strengthen its naval power to become a world power.
Horace Mann
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
William McKinley
Republican nominee in the 1896 election and adopted a conservative platform upholding the gold standard.
Minutemen
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds.
James Monroe
The fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas.
Mormon Church
Religious denomination Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints based on the Book of Mormon started by Joseph Smith in Ohio. Taken over by Brigham Young in 1844 and moved to Utah where they started a prosperous community.
National Labor Union
Founded by William Sylvis. Supported 8-hour workdays, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks.
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809).
Franklin Pierce
an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.
James K Polk
Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
Pontiac
Indian Chief; led post war flare-up in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Region in 1763; his actions led to the Proclamation of 1763; the Proclamation angered the colonists.
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies.
Joseph Pulitzer
Writer of the New York newspaper- "World" and competed with William Randolph Hearst to print the most grisly stories about Spanish atrocities- wartime acts of brutality and cruelty
used yellow journalism to attract readers.
Queen Liliuokalani
Last Hawaiian monarch, refused to allow Hawaii to be annexed by the US.
Republican Party
One of the two major American political parties. It emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats.
Rough Riders
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
Second Continental Congress
It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
Seventh Day Adventist Church
A Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the "seventh day" of the week, as the Sabbath; established in 1863 with Ellen G. White as one of its founders.
Shakers
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Sons of Liberty
Secret societies formed to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. Led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Zachary Taylor
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Tecumseh
A famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement.
Temperance Societies
International social movement dedicated to the control of alcohol consumption through the promotion of moderation and abstinence. It began as a church-sponsored movement in the U.S. in the early 19th century. It attracted the efforts of many women, and by 1833 there were 6,000 local temperance societies in the U.S.
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Nat Turner
Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders abd familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states put stricter control on slave population.
Boss Tweed
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Martin Van Buren
senator, vice president, and president of the United States; the Panic of 1837 ruined his presidency, and he was voted out of office in 1840. He later supported the Free Soil Party.
Booker T Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Daniel Webster
United States politician and orator (1782-1817), Leader of the Whig Party, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency.
Whig Party
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
A militant female anti-alcohol organization. Helped influence the passing of the 18th amendment.
Workingmen's Party
Was the first Marxist-influenced political party in the United States. Formed in 1876, when a congress of socialists from around the United States met in Philadelphia in an attempt to unify their political power.
Brooklyn Bridge
1883 Designed by John Roebling. Established the structural basis for all modern suspension bridges; it also employed the first steel used in an American structure.
Confederate States of America
The name adopted by the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union during the Civil War.
Eerie Canal
Opened up the West and allowed Westerners to get goods previously unattainable.
The Philippines
Spanish colony, Philippines wanted independence. America destroyed Spanish fleet, America captured Manila with help from Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo.
Puerto Rico, Samoa, Guam
Given to the U.S. with the conclusion of the Spanish-American War.
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops.
13th Amendment
Abolition of slavery.
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws.
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or precious condition of servitude.
Adams-Onis Treaty
Agreement in which Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States.
Albany Plan of Union
Proposal by Benjamin Franklin to create one government for the 13 colonies.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government.
Amnesty Act
Passed in 1872, law which granted civil rights to ex-confederates and so set the stage for them to regain control of the south.
Articles of Confederation
The nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Bill of Rights
A statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution).
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves.
Bland-Allison Act
1873 - Law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
Bradwell v Illinois
Female attorney Myra Bradwell had been denied the right to practice law in Illinois because of gender.
British Proclamation of 1763
English law enacted after French and Indian War which forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. It helped spark the American revolution.
Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge
(1837) It established the obligation of a contract. The Charles River Bridge was commissioned and claimed that when MA commissioned the Warren Bridge only a little while later that MA was breaking its contract because they thought they had a monopoly of the river. The Supreme Court sided with the Warren Bridge.
Cherokee Nation v Georgia
Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had "an unquestionable right" to their lands, but they were "not a foreign state, in the sense of the Constitution" but rather a "domestic, dependent nation" and so could not sue in a United States court over Georgia's voiding their right to self-rule. Was a blow to the Cherokee case, it cast doubt on the constitutionality of Indian Removal Act.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Chisholm v Georgia
1793- Supreme Court ruled that a state could be sued in federal courts by nonresidents.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Command of the Army Act
prohibited the president from issuing military orders except through the commanding general of the army (General Grant), who could not be relieved or assigned elsewhere without the consent of the Senate.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise to 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river.
Compromise Tariff
Was proposed to be a resolution to the nullification crisis caused by the Tariff of Abomination in 1828 and the Tariff of 1832. Was to gradually lower import taxes until 1842 (1833).
Confiscation Act
An Act that declared that all rebel property used in war, including slaves, could be confiscated and declared that confiscated slaves were free forever.
Cumberland (National Road)
Constructing a decent road over the Appalachians was more difficult. Although the state was responsible for internal improvements, this road was an exception. Contributed to nationalism because it connected the east and west together in trade and commerce.
Declaration of Independence
This document was adopted on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.
Declaratory Act
After the British repealed the Stamp Act, Great Britain said that it could still do anything to the colonies that it deemed necessary to keep them in line.
Dred Scott v Sanford
The case that ruled that slaves were property and could not sue.
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free.
Embargo Act
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Franco-American Alliance
Agreement by France to fund American military aids and loans to American colonies.
Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
Freeport Doctrine
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
Fugitive Slave Act
A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders.
Gentlemen's Agreement
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them.
Gibbons V Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government.
Homestead Act
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years.
Independent Treasury Act
A bill proposed by Van Buren to "divorce" the government from the economy, which he believed would help the economy. The act was repealed a year later by the Whigs, but reinstituted in 1847.
Interstate Commerce Act
A law that made a federal Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate unfair railroad practices.
Intolerable Acts
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses.
Jay Treaty
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley.
Jones Act
Act that replaced the Foraker Act. It gave Puerto Ricans full citizenship, as well as a government that was similar to a state government.
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law passed by the first Congress to establish the federal court system. The act determined the organization and jurisdiction of the courts.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Also called Lincoln's 10% Plan, when 10% of the voters in 1860 took an oath of allegiance they could set up a new constitution. It failed due to Lincoln's assassination.
Marbury v Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review.
McCulloch vs Maryland
Supreme Court ruling: states had no right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders; strengthened federal power.
McKinley Tariff
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history.
Military Reconstruction Act
It divided the South into five military districts that were commanded by Union generals. It was passed in 1867. It ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of Martial Law.
Missouri Compromise
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Morrill Land Grant Act
A law that gave land and money for agricultural colleges.
Non-intercourse Act
It allowed Americans to carry or trade with all nations except for Britian and France.
Force Act
An act that used military control/ force to protect African Americans' right to vote.
Macon's Bill #2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Oregon Treaty
1846. Settled dispute of Oregon boundary dispute, stemming from the Treaty of 1818 in which both U.S. and British settlers were granted free navigation of the territory.
Ostend Manifesto
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
Pendleton Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Pinckney's Treaty
Negotiated with Spain for the free navigation of the Mississippi River.
Plessy v Ferguson
A 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
Protective Tariff
A tax on imported goods that is intended to protect a nation's businesses from foreign competition.
Reconstruction
The period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
An agreement that limited naval power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada.
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Increased the coinage of silver, but in amounts too small to satisfy farmers and miners.
Spoils System
Practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs.
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies.
Sugar Act
The British were deeply in debt partly to French and Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Tallmadge Amendment
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South.
Tea Act
Tax on tea; made the East India Company the only tea company allowed to colonists; reason for Tea Party (1773).
Telegraph
Apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire (usually in Morse code).
Teller Amendment
This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million.
Treaty of Paris
This treaty ended the Seven Years War.
Trent Affair
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release.
United States v Knight Co.
(1895) Congress wanted to bust a trust because it controled 98% of sugar manufacturing. Supreme court said no because it wasn't interstate commerce which they do have the right to regulate. Severely weakend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Wabash Case
Supreme court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce.
Wade-Davis Bill
Bill passed in 1864 which set forth stringent requirements for Confederate states readmission to the Union. Vetoed by President Lincoln who favored a more lenient plan.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition.
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff
Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.
Quartering Act
An act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists.
Currency Act
Prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy.
/ 333
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online