Garrison Oceanography Ch 1-7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The big bang occurred________ years ago
14 Billion
The gaseous cloud from which the sun was formed is called a
nebula
The presence of large amounts of water on Earth's surface_____ global temperatures
moderates
The protosun was no considered a star because
It was too cold for nuclear fusion
Which element was not present in Earth's primitive atmosphere when life arose
oxygen
The dense rocky planets, like Earth are found____ to the sun
closer to
Which of the follow is/are suggestive that simple, self-replicating molecules arose in the early ocean
All life depends on saline water in its cells to dissolve transport chemicals
As Earth was formed in the early solar system the present layers of core, crust and mantle began to separate in a process known as______
gravitational sorting
Background microwave radiation is important evidence in support of the ____ theory
big bang
The major sources of the water that formed the ocean are thought to be outgassing and____
capture of icy comets
Wachtenhauser proposed the idea that life may have begun_____
in warm tropical tide pools
Most of the matter in the known universe consists of_____
hydrogen
The formation of a larger mass by the accumulation of smaller masses
Accretion
The creation of life when similar molecules combine to produce more complex molecules like proteins, carbohydrates and DNA
Biosyntheses
The sorting of materials accumulate in the deeper and lower regions and the less dense rise to the outer and upper regions
Density Stratification
A diffuse cloud of gas and dust
Nebula
The outward migration of gases trapped in Earth as their lower density causes them to rise from the interior to the exterior. It is ocean and the gases that produced the atmosphere
Outgassing
The art and science of making charts
cartography
What expedition is said to be responsible for bringing the US into the marine science field
United States Exploring Expedition
Who is usually acknowledge as being the first scientific oceanographer
Captain James Cook
Who is considered by many to be the first full time oceanographer and the father of physical oceanography
Matthew Maury
_____ established what might be considered the first land based center for the study of marine science and navigation
Prince Henry the Navigator
Even with the great advances in technology, obtaining _____ still remains a problem in deep sea research
accurate bottom profiles
________on the Fram, proved that there is no actual arctic continent
Frirjof Nansen
____ first calculated the circumference of the Earth
Eratosthenes
_____ was the first oceanographic institute in the US
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
_______ was not done in the first Challenger expedition
bottom sediment sampling
_______ was a leader in the rise of American sea-power, practically the interdependence of military and commercial control to insure safe lines of supply in war time
Alfred Mahan
Returning from a four year mission in 1842 the captain and scientists of the ____ expedition prepared a 19 volume report including maps, text and illustrations
HMS Endeavor
___ coined the term oceanography
Charles Wilkes
The hot fluid region of the upper mantle that lies below the lithosphere, it creates the movements that drive plate tectonics in the lithosphere
Asthenosphere
The movement of the continents over Earth's surface, proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1912___
Continental Drift
Mass per unit volume of sustenance
Density
The way continental masses are supported by floating on the fluid (plastic) Asthenosphere below
Isostasy
The ridged outer layer of Earth' composed of the crust and the solid upper part of the mantle
Lithosphere
New seafloor is produced and spreads out from____
the mid-ocean ridges
____ was used as the primary evidence by Alfred Wegner to support the theory of continental drift
the apparent fit of eastern South America to western Africa
The continental masses are often more than three billion years old while the sea floor is rarely older than 200 million years because
new sea floor eventually subducts and melts in deep sea trenches, rarely taking more than 200 million years
As higher continental mountains erode, the low density mountain root supporting them will
experience isostatic uplift because the masss of the mountain is decreasing
_____ is true of primary and secondary waves
P waves travel through Earth nearly twice as fast as S waves
Arrange basalt, mantle outer core, granite and the inner core from least dense to most dense
granite, basalt, mantle, outer core, inner core
The paleomagnetic patterns of the seafloor give strong evidence that
the polarity of the earth's magnetic field has gone through reversals
The age of the sea floor is _____ with the oldest floor farthest away from spreading centers
symmetrical
______ drives the movement of plate tectonics
convection of cells in the atmosphere and outer core and the centrifugal force associated with the spin of the Earth on it's axis
_____ and ____ are most closely associated with the study of the structure of mid ocean ridges
Benioff and Wadati
The physical movement of a fluid (liquid or gas) driven by differences in density within the fluid
Convection
The downward movement of the lithosphere plate into the mantle
seduction
True or false, subduction zones are located adjacent to mid-ocean ridges
false
The Islands of the Hawaiian Chain are ____ than the islands of the Emperor Chain
younger
The _____ ______ was formed by convergence of two continental plates
Himalaya Mountains
The ______ mountains were formed by oceanic-continental convergence
Rocky Mountains
The ______ islands formed by divergence
Philippine
The Aleutian Islands were formed by
transform faulting
True or false the Hawaiian Islands are an island arch
false
True or false the least amount of volcanic activity occurs at convergent boundaries between oceanic and continental plates
true
An echo system is a ____ system
multibeam
Satellite altimetry profiles seabed features by measuring variations in
sea surface shape
The crust under a continental shelf is composed of
granite
ROVs, Remotely Operated Vehicles, used for deep sea work have the advantage of being_____ than people caring vehicles
cheaper and safer
Continental shelves are primarily shaped when
sea level is low
A guyot is a_____ seamount
flat-topped
A continental rise is made of sediment primarily from
shelf sources
True or false, if the ocean evaporated Earth's most prominent feature would be the oceanic ridge system
true
Convection moves the superheated water associated with
hydrothermal vents
Trenches are the ____ places on earth
deepest
Submarine canyons are most often found in___
continental shelves and slopes
Lithosphere plates move____ across transform faults
horizontally
Manganese nodules are considered to be____ sediment
hydrogenous
True or false, well sorted sediments are also called ruble
false, they are all one size
The largest particle still considered a sediment is_____
a boulder
The smallest particle still considered a sediment is
clay
Stratigraphy is the study and description of____
layered sediment deposits
At great depths seawater tends to become slightly acidic and ____ oozes will not form
calcareous
Due to____ much of Earth's history has been lost
subduction
Deep sea sediment containing at least 30 percent biogenous materiel is called
ooze
Evaporates are classified as_______ sediments
hydrogenous
True are false, manganese molecules have been mined from the deep sea floor
false
Hydrogen bonds are____ and ___ in liquid water
weak, temporary
Ice is ____ dense than water
less
The salty water near Greenland that becomes cold and dense and sinks is part of
Thermohaline Circulation
____ Atoms have a slightly positive charge
hydrogen
In addition to mixing in the air, oxygen enters sea water as a by-product of
photosynthesis
_____, _____ and ___ are non-conservative ocean chemicals
oxygen, phosphate, and nitrate
Colligative properties of water are affected by dissolving___ in it
salts
The major pH buffering agents in the ocean are_____, _____ and ______
CO2, Bicarbonate, Carbonate
The average salinity of the worlds ocean is_____ percent (parts per thousand)
35
True or false, nitrogen is present in a higher percentage than oxygen or CO2 when dissolved in water
true
______ constituents have long residence time and _____ have short ones
conservative, non-conservative
Adding iron to iron deficient regions in the ocean might reduce global wamring by
increasing photosynthetic use of CO2
The_____ is the region of maximum sound transmission in the ocean
sofar layer
______ and _____ are basically synonymous with each other
epipelagic and euphatic
______ is the bending of light and sound waves
refraction
Sound waves in seawater travel_____ than soundwaves in the air
faster
The _____ region generally lacks a thermocline
polar
The boundary between the thermocline and the deep zone usually lies at a depth of______ meters
1000
What color of visible light is absorbed the least in seawater
blue
The shadow zone is the depth where__________ travels rapidly
sound
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