Oceanography Test Chapter 3 and 4 Part III Flashcards

Terms Definitions
life requires both _____ to exist
matter and energy
What 2 things do living organisms do that distinguish them from nonlife?
organize matter into cells and biological chemicals
Energy is necessary for life because living systems use it to _____
accomplish the processes of life
What are some of the processes of life which energy is used for?
movement, reproduction, growth, eating
What says disorder increases with the passage of time?
second law of thermodynamics
second law of thermodynamics: what happens with the passage of time?
disorder increases
second law of thermodynamics: energy flows from areas of high concentration
to low concentration; and it is this flow that living systems can ___ to ___
harness to perform useful work
when energy changes form, some energy is _____ as ____
lost; heat
how second law of thermodynamics relates to life: producers use energy to ______ and to gather and store
_______
organize matter; potential (chemical) energy
What is the process of self-feeding by creating carbohydrates?
autotrophy
autotrophy: process of self-feeding by creating ______
carbohydrates
What is the process of obtaining energy and matter by consuming other organisms?
heterotrophy
heterotrophy: process of obtaining energy and matter by _____
consuming other organisms
What is the process of releasing energy from carbohydrates to perform the functions of life?
respiration
respiration: the process of _____ to perform the functions of life
releasing energy from carbohydrates
respiration: the process of releasing energy from carbohydrates to _____
perform life functions
What is an organism that combines energy from sunlight with inorganic materials to form energy-rich organic compounds?
primary producer
primary producer: combines energy from ____ with ____ to form energy-rich organic compounds
sunlight; inorganic materials
What is the process of using light energy to create carbohydrates from inorganic compounds?
photosynthesis
photosynthesis: the process of using _____ to create carbohydrates from inorganic compounds
light energy
photosynthesis: the process of using light energy to create _____ from inorganic compounds
carbohydrates
photosynthesis: the process of using light energy to create carbohydrates from _____
inorganic compounds
Photosynthesis is the ________
process to respiration
complimentary
During the day autotrophs use ______ (materials) to create carbohydrates
CO2, H2O, sunlight energy
During the day autotrophs use CO2, H2O, and energy from sun to create _______
carbohydrates
At night autotrophs can _____, consuming _____ and releasing _____
respire; oxygen; carbon dioxide
What is the process of using chemicals to create energy-rich organic compounds?
chemosynthesis
chemosynthesis: the process of using _____ to create energy-rich organic compounds?
chemicals
chemo. and photosynthesis both produce _____
carbohydrates
chemo. and photosynthesis are both forms of ______
fixation
What is the process of transforming inorganic compounds into usable organic compounds?
fixation
chemo. and photosyntheis both fix _____ into _____
carbon; carbohydrates
fixation: the process of transforming _____ compounds into usable _____ compounds
inorganic; organic
Chemosynthesis is different from photosynthesis because, instead of _____, it uses _____ within inorganic compunds
light energy; chemical energy
The main product of primary production is _____
carbohydrates
scientists measure primary productivity in terms of the amount of _____ fixed into organic material
carbon
scientists measure primary productivity in terms of the amount of carbon fixed into _____
organic material
What are the units for measuring fixed carbon?
grams carbon/square meter/year
_____ is the mass of living tissue
biomass
biomass at a given time is called _____
standing crop
How the land and ocean's net primary production compare: ____'s is slightly higher
land
although marine biomass is much lower, marine net primary productivity is only slightly lower than terrestrial because marine ecosystems ______ much more rapidly
cycle energy and nutrients
This term ______ does not describe a kind of organism, but a group of organisms with a common lifestyle and habitat
plankton
plankton are a group of organisms with a common _____
lifestyle and habitat
types of plankton include:
autotrophs, heterotrophs, grazers, predators
How do plankton move?
drift, swim weakly, moved by water motion
________ live part of their lives as plankton
Meroplankton
_______ remain plankton all their life
Holoplankton
type of plankton: ____ are autotrophic primary
producers
Phytoplankton
type of plankton: _____ are heterotrophic primary
and secondary consumers of other
plankton.
Zooplankton
What organisms are responsible for most of the primary production in the sea?
phytoplankton
What are the four kinds of important plankton?
diatoms, coccolithophores, silicoflagellates, and dinoflagellates
plankton types: They are the most dominant and efficient photosynthesizes known
diatoms
diatoms have a rigid cell wall made of silica called a _____ which admits light
frustule
plankton type: _____ have a rigid cell wall made of silica called a frustule which admits light
diatoms
plankton types: _____ are characterized by one or two
whip-like flagella which they use to move in water
dinoflagellates
dinoflagellates: characterized by their ____
flagella
plankton types: ______ are the most significant primary producers in
coral reefs
dinoflagellates
plankton types: ______ are the principal organisms responsible
for plankton blooms
dinoflagellates
plankton types: _______ are single-cell autotrophs characterized by shells of calcium carbonate.
coccolithophores
coccolithophores have shells of ______
calcium carbonate
plankton types: _____ are micro-organisms with internal support structures made of silica and have
one or more flagella
silicoflagellates
silicoflagellates have internal support structures made of ____ and have one or more _____
silica; flagella
plankton types: _____ are structurally and chemically more primitive than diatoms
silicoflagellates
What is an extremely tiny type of plankton?
picoplankton
many picoplankton are ____, which are bacteria with chlorophyll
cyanophytes/cyanobacteria/blue-green algae
What is picoplankton's role in primary productivity?
food for heterotrophic bacteria
What is a physical or biological necessity that restrict survival?
limiting factor
primary productivity: _____ have low productivity
tropical waters
why tropical waters have low productivity: _____ water traps nutrients in the _____ layers that are too deep for _____
warm; cold; photosynthesizing autotrophs
primary productivity: ______ have high primary productivity because little temperature difference allows nutrients to cycle to shallower water
Arctic and Antarctic
_____ have more
primary productivity due to more nutrients from rain runoff
temperate/coastal
in temperate/coastal areas, _____ keeps nutrients from becoming unusable
shallow water
What are the areas of highest primary productivity?
Antarctic Convergence Zone and temperate coastal areas
Light availability affects primary productivity by controlling ____
photosynthesis
What is the term for where there is zero net primary productivity because production=respiration?
compensation depth
Compensation depth is significant to primary productivty because the autotrophs lack sufficient energy to reproduce, so _____ can't be passed along
energy
______ is a hierarchy that
represents how energy transfers
as organisms consume each other
trophic pyramid
What is the first level of
heterotrophs that eat primary
producers?
primary consumers
trophic pyramid: _______ eat primary consumers
Secondary consumers
trophic pyramid: Each level eats the level below and has _____ than the level it eats
less biomass
At each level of the trophic pyramid, how much energy transfers to the next level up?
10%
____ is a way to illustrate different
levels of consumers and energy flow
food web
______ is important because it makes materials available for re-use/completes the materials cycle
decomposition
______ break down organic material into an inorganic form
decomposers
____ are the most important
decomposers
Bacteria
Within systems, energy ____ and
matter ____
flows; cycles
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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