Comparative Government: China Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cadre
French for "framework," used by Asian Communists for local Party leader
Central Committee
340 members that meet together annually for a week; carry on the business of the National Party Congress between sessions, although their policymaking powers are limited; meetings are called plenums
Central Military Commission
represents the military in China's government; head plays an important role in policymaking
Chiang Kai-Shek
former Nationalist leader of China who fled to Taiwan after Mao Zedong took over
Collectivism
The theory and practice of the ownership of land and the means of production by the people of the state
CCP
Chinese communist party. Founded in 1921 and came to power in 1949. It is the ruling party for the people's republic of China.
Confucianism
a code of conduct developed by Confucius, a great teacher. This code emphasized obligations of the people toward each other and toward their state.
Cultural Revolution
A program launched by Mao Zedong to renew loyalty to communism and purge China of those disloyal to Mao.
Danwei
control maintained through this system, all Chinese citizens have a lifetime affiliation with a specific industrial, agricultural, or bureaucratic niche that dictated all aspects of their lives, including housing, health care, and other social benefits.
Decentralization
the spread of power away from the center to local branches or governments
Democratic Centralism
Decisions were made under central leadership to serve those interests
Deng Xiaoping Theory
a practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization; socialist planning and capitalist free market
Dual Role
The relationship between the Communist Party and the Chinese government.
Egalitarianism
a belief in the equality of all people
Factionalism
party strife and intrigue; infighting, dissension
Fang-shou
A letting-go, tightening up cycle in the Chinese political and economic system.
Four Modernizations
Deng Xiaoping's plan to increase industrialization, modernize agriculture, improve military, develop technology and science
Guanxi
a Chinese term meaning "connections" or "relationships" and describes personal ties between individuals based on such things as common birthplace or mutual acquaintances; important factor in China's political and economic life.
Great Leap Forward
economic and social plan used in China from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society.
Han Chinese
About 92% of China's population.
Household Responsibility System
Because the communes resulted in famine, Deng Xiaoping started this successful initiative; people were able to eat and some made a little extra money.
Iron Rice Bowl
Mao's promise of cradle to grave health care, work, and retirement security that has largely disappeared under reform and opening
Long March
The 6,000-mile flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. (789)
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Maoism
Distinctly Chinese version of communism: inequality resisted, centered on own philosophy, belief in strength of peasants
Mass Line
a method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political leadership in the concerns and conditions of the masses, developed by Mao Zedong during the Chinese revolution.
Mass Mobilization
an effort to turn the sheer numbers of the population into an asset; resulted in better motivation, harder work, and less unemployment
Middle Kingdom
The name which China gave itself. Shows ethnocentrism and isolationism.
National Party Congress
body of over 2,000 delegates of the Chinese Communist Party chosen primarily from congresses on lower levels; meets every 5 years to rubberstamp decisions by party leaders; main power is to elect members of the Central Committee
Nomenklatura
the process of filing influential jobs in the state, society, or the economy with people approved and chosen by the communist party
Parallel Hierarchies
linkage between the communist party, state/gov't, and the People's Liberation army
People's Liberation Army
The unified military organization of all land, sea, and air forces of the People's Republic of China.
People's National Congress
top of the government hierarchy where state authority is formally vested; subject to party authority; chooses the president and the vice president of China
Plenums
The meetings of the Central Committee of the CCP.
Politboro
the most important organization within the CCP consisting of two dozen or so leaders in China which approves all major policy and personnel changes
Standing Committee
Seven members chosen from the Politboro. Almost all of the members are Technocrats.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
Designed to attract foreign companies and investment to areas of China
State Corporatism
a political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group
Technocrats
highly educated bureaucrats who make decisions based on their perceptions of technical ideas rather than political ones.
Townships and village enterprises (TVEs)
Rural factories and businesses that are run by local government and private entrepreneurs.
Two Chinas
People's Republic of China, Republic of China (Taiwan)
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