AP Euro: Themes Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Concilliarism
The theory that authority of a general council is superior to the pope. Was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as a group of Christians represented by a general church council, not a pope. Impacted the schism that ensued later. First thoughts on the subject written by William of Ockham in 1300s. Compare with constitutionalism: didn't want one ruler but rule by a group representing the people.
Humanism
Recovery and study of classical authors & writings. Intellectual movement that promoted education in humanities and linguistics, poetry, and literature. For many, it was a redefinition of what it meant to be human. Important figure is Erasmus. His writings deeply influenced Humanism by challenging common assumptions and critiquing some practices of the church. Closely related to the Renaissance as it evolved during this era. Contrast with Scientific Revolution: looking to the past for intellectual vs. discovering new things for the future.
Christian Humanism
Part of the northern Renaissance which had an emphasis on early Church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the Church. It drew on Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible and writings of the Church Fathers. The writings led to criticism of the Church, ultimately the Reformation. Compare with Islamic Fundamentalism: both wanted reform of their religion, but one wanted forward steps in freedoms of the church and the other wanted to go back to the old religious ways.
The Modern Devotion
north European Christian group that sought to encourage an individual, mystical relationship with god, apart from the formality of church. Geert Groote originated the movement. Complete contrast with Roman Catholic Church which highlighted the structure of the church itself.
Lutheranism
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicism in the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith. Its tremendous growth is based on the invention of the printing press which allowed ideas to pass around and Bibles to be owned by those other than the priests. Started the questioning of the church and the reformation. Compare with Christian Humanism: both initiated social and religious reform but one influenced attitudes towards the Catholic church while the other influenced art and philosophy.
Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state. One belief was of predetermination: before one is born, it is predetermined whether they'll go to heaven or hell. Related to Lutheranism as it followed as a Protestant faith.
Politiques
The politiques were a small group of moderates of both faiths: Catholicism and Protestantism. They believed that only restoration of a strong monarchy can reverse the trend of France's potential collapse; they ultimately saved France. Would have been against democracy and/or constitutionalism
Constitutionalism
Theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects and the state governed according to laws. Imposes limits on authority of government. Is a social contract, basically a piece of paper. Example of constitutional monarchy: England. Contrast with absolutism: where ruler has absolute power. Absolutism only works if the monarchy is strong; if it weakens, the people begin to want more say.
Absolutism
Theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally. Centralization of power can mean a more efficient government as well as being unified socially. Rose in the 17th century because of professionalization of armies, divine right of monarchs, promises by rulers to better the economy. Ultimate example is Louis XIV of France with "L'etat, c'est moi." Compare with totalitarianism.
Mercantilism
Governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy, through taxes, tariffs, subsidies, laws. Focus on development of countries and industry for self-sufficiency. Export as much as possible for hard currency, leading to massive national treasuries. Build up of colonial holdings that only supply raw materials that they send only to the home country. Adam Smith wrote on mercantilism with the idea of the "invisible hand" (the economy is guided by another force and will succeed) Colbert implemented mercantilism during Louis XIV's rule. Compare with socialism for both believe in state run economies.
Empiricism
Rejected most of traditional philosophy (existence of god, meaning of happiness) as essentially nothing. Philosophical issues (God, freedom, morality, etc.) were determined to be a waste of time because they couldn't be tested. People could no longer find answers in philosophy. Scientific discoveries were only valid if dependant on evidence observable by the senses. John Locke founded British empiricism and spoke on "tabula rasa" or the mind as a blank slate. He also believed the Government should limit itself to protecting people's life liberty and property. Contrast with rationalism which is based on reason.
Witch Hunts
spread by religious reformers' preachings about the Devil and severe economic hardships. Women (and some men) would be blamed for a problem, declared a witch, and then killed.
Deism
The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny. Main figure is Lord Herbert of Cherbury who wrote De Veritae, the exploration of knowledge and the first major statement on deism. Compare with Lutheranism.
Laissez Faire
liberalist document that literally meant "let do" which states that governments should not interfere with the market. Relates to idea of natural selection because it believes that if it's left on its own, the economy will weed out the weak and build up the strong on its own. Opposition to wealth distribution. Economic liberalism, contrast with communism.
Rococo
Art style that focused on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits. Personal and elegant, it was made popular during the mid 1700s and featured fancy designs in the shape of leaves, shells, and scrolls. Jean-Antoine Watteau was first major rococo artist. Compare with baroque art.
Enlightened Absolutism
European rulers who embraced many of the philosophes' reforms, monarchical government dedicated to rational strengthening of central absolutist administration at cost of lesser political power centers. Focused on incorporating enlightenment ideals into the management of their countries. Fredrick the Great of Prussia embraced culture and literature rather than the army and thus used more human methods in his ruling. Catherine the Great of Russia focused on improving Russian culture by importing Western architects, musicians, and intellectuals. She also restricted torture, allowed limited religious toleration, and tried to improve education and strengthen local government. Maria Theresa of Austria(ruling until her Joseph came of age) introduced measure's that would limit the papacy's political influence in Austria, installed a whole series of reforms that strengthened the central bureaucracy, smoothed out some provincial differences and revamped the tax system. When Joseph II came the throne in 1780, he granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews and abolished serfdom in 1781. Contrast with constitutionalism.
Romanticism
an art movement that was characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination and spontaneity in both art and personal life. Romantics believed that full development of one's unique human potential was the supreme purpose in life. They opposed classical ideas and focused more on nature, therefore expressing negative opinions about the industrial revolution which they believed was an ugly, brutal attack on nature and human personality. They believed that the key to a universe was perceived as organic and dynamic rather than enlightenment ideals of mechanical and static. Compare with expressionism as both used emotion.
Conservatism
A political ideology generally characterized by a belief in individualism and minimal government intervention in the economy and society; also a belief in the virtue of the status quo. Word conservative first used by French Chateaubriand. Contrast with absolutism.
Liberalism
one of the ideologies that stemmed out of the dual revolution; its principal ideas were liberty and equality and demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy and equality before the law. Liberalism also granted freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom from arbitrary arrest. Realized successfully in the American Revolution and partly in the French revolution. Opponents criticized liberalism for its economic principles which called for unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference with the economy. Compare with "laissez faire"
Nationalism
one of the ideologies that stemmed out of the dual revolution in which the people feel a strong sense of national and cultural pride. It originated from the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars and spread rapidly thereafter. Early nationalism included creating a standardized national language to improve communication between individuals and groups, bringing citizens together with emotionally charged symbols and ceremonies, and the belief that every nation had the right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit. It stressed the ideas of national mission and national superiority. Contrast with 'laissez faire" because nationalism believed in economic distribution.
Chartism
The first important political movement of working men organized during the nineteenth century in Britain. It aimed to achieve a political democracy. Compare with unionism in workers wanting rights.
Anarchism
Radical opposition to any form of government; the theory that all governments should be abolished. Against control by rulers or parliaments or even democracies. Contrast with absolutism.
Marxism
The political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding society's allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society. Compare with socialism
Romantic Republicanism
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The Irish Question
the question faced by British of giving independence to Irish who wanted freedom. Compare with colonialism. Britain clearly thought Ireland was a different case than the colonies it extorted or the third world countries it exploited.
Unionism
labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union. Unions fight for rights of workers. Came out as factories in Industrial Revolution exploited people. Compare with communism.
Fabianism
a British intellectual socialist movement, whose purpose is to advance the principles of Social democracy via gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. It is best known for its initial ground-breaking work beginning late in the 19th century and continuing up to World War I. The society laid many of the foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire, especially India. Compare with idea of civil disobedience.
Marxist Revisionism (Germany)
used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises. The term is most often used by those Marxists who believe that such revisions are unwarranted and represent a "watering down" or abandonment of Marxism. As such, revisionism often carries pejorative connotations. Few Marxists label themselves as revisionists. The opposing term and concept, even used among Marxists, is Marxist dogmatism. Compare with Marxism.
Positivism
Philosophical movement based in Vienna; asserts that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof, and that therefore rejects metaphysics and theism. Compare with Empiricism.
Social Darwinism
A social application of Charles Darwin's biological theory of evolution by natural selection, this late-nineteenth century theory encouraged the notion of human competition and opposed intervention in the natural human order. Economists found in Social Darwinism a way to justify the doctrine of Laissez Faire. According to this doctrine, businesses should be left alone and not regulated. Compare with Kulturkampf
Kulturkampf
"struggle for civilization," German policies in relation to the Roman Catholic Church by Bismarck, who sought to reduce their political and social influence, as he favored Protestantism. He did this by asserting political control over their activities and bringing discriminatory sanctions against Catholicism. Contrast with Holocaust in that it was discriminatory against Catholicism rather than Judaism.
Realism/Naturalism
Depicted life how it was. Wrote in very straight-forward viewpoints- observed and recorded everyday activities. Began in France under Balzac, Flaubert, and Zola. The popularity of realism grew with the introduction of photography - a new visual source that created a desire for people to produce things that look "objectively real". Realists positioned themselves against romanticism, a genre dominating French literature and artwork in the late 18th and early 19th century. Undistorted by personal bias, Realism believed in the ideology of objective reality and revolted against exaggerated emotionalism. Truth and accuracy became the goals of many Realists. Contrast with romanticism.
Impressionism
Capture momentary impression of light on real-life scene. It was a different way of seeing. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. They began by giving colours, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painters such as Eugène Delacroix. They also took the act of painting out of the studio and into the modern world. Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissarro led. Compare with Cubism, looking at the world differently.
Cubism
technique began by Pablo Picasso in 1907. In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism's distinct characteristics. Concentrated on complex geometry of zigzagging lines, and sharply angled, overlapping planes. Compare with Rococo: using elaborate shapes, just different ones.
Racism
the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race. Possibly came out of the African slave trade. Held for a long time in Europe as they thought they were superior to Africans, Indians, Aztecs, Jews etc. Strongly impacted our world today. Compare with colonialism.
Zionism
led by Theodor Herzl, it was the international Jewish political movement. The political movement was formally established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century following the publication of "Der Judenstaat". The movement seeks to encourage Jewish migration to the "Land of Israel" and was eventually successful in establishing Israel in 1948, as the homeland for the Jewish people. Its proponents regard its aim as self-determination for the Jewish people. Compare with nationalism: instead of being connected to a people by location, it was a connection through religion.
New Imperialism
A movement in which the nations of Europe raced to claim as much land and peoples as possible in order to gain national prestige which ranged from 1880-1914 New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of what has been termed "empire for empire's sake," aggressive competition for overseas territorial acquisitions and the emergence in some colonizing countries of doctrines of racial superiority which purported to explain the unfitness of backward peoples for self-government. Contrast with mercantilism: countries realized they couldn't constantly compete for the finite wealth available but needed to expand.
War Communism
how the Bolsheviks reacted to the crisis in the summer of 1918 of food shortages and famine. Appropriated heavy industries and gradually put an end to private trade. Created "committees of poor peasants." Forcibly requisitioned food and raw materials, turning poor peasants against wealthier ones. May have saved the Revolution but it took the terrible toll of decline in industrial production. Compare with Utopian socialism.
Fascism
A philosophy or system of government that advocates a dictatorship of the extreme right together with an ideology of belligerent nationalism. Example is Mussolini in Italy. Compare with totalitarianism.
Sinn Fein
An Irish republican political movement founded in 1905 to promote independence from England and unification of Ireland.
Nazism
The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Nazism was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany. Compare with racism.
Britain's National Government
In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all UK major political parties. In a historical sense it usually refers primarily to the governments of Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain which held office from 1931 until 1940.
France's Popular Front
Alliance formed in French elections of May 1936 between the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals as result from the concern they had about the fascist movement overbroad. Won easily. Encouraged union movement and social reform. Compare with communism: one party.
Corporatism
a political system in which citizens are represented in government by major interest groups. In its most advanced form, it involves the organization of the population into officially sanctioned interest groups based on occupational or socioeconomic lines
Stalinization
policy instituted in East European states after Stalin's death. implies an inherently oppressive system of extensive government spying, extrajudicial punishment, and political "purging", or elimination of political opponents either by direct killing or through exile, and it involves a state using extensive use of propaganda to establish a personality cult around an absolute dictator to maintain control over the nation's people and to maintain political control for the Communist Party. Soviet-type 5-year plans, collectivizing of agriculture, eliminated all non-Communist parties
Appeasement
most often applied to the foreign policy of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany between 1937 and 1939. Chamberlain's subsequent policy of appeasement emerged out of the weakness of the League of Nations and the failure of collective security. The League of Nations was set up in the aftermath of the First World War in the hope that international cooperation and collective resistance to aggression might prevent another war. Members of the League were entitled to the assistance of other members if they came under attack. The policy of collective security ran in parallel with measures to achieve international disarmament and where possible was to be based on economic sanctions against an aggressor. Compare to facism: not a belligerent government standing at all.
Containment
Containment was a United States policy uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to limit the spread of Communism, enhance America's security and influence abroad, and prevent a "domino effect". A component of the Cold War, the policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to expand Communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, and Korea. It represented a middle-ground position between appeasement and rollback. Compare to appeasement.
Solidarity
Solidarity was the first non-communist trade union in a communist country. In the 1980s it constituted a broad anti-communist social movement. The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of repression, but in the end it had to start negotiating with the union. Compare with nonviolent resistance.
Decolonization
achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. Economic growth created stakeholders with their own demands, while racial issues meant these people clearly stood apart from the colonial middle-class and had to form their own group. The start of mass nationalism, as a concept and practice, would fatally undermine the ideologies of imperialism. Contrast with imperialism.
Perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society. Compare with industrial revolution as both restructured economies.
Glasnost
A Soviet policy permitting greater openness, discussion, and disclosure of ideas and information. Used by Mikhail Gorbachev, former Soviet premire, to describe the less repressive policies of the Soviet Union in the 1980s. Compare with dictatorships/totalitarianism.
Ethnic Cleansing
refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically "pure" society. The term entered English and international usage in the early 1990s to describe certain events in the former Yugoslavia. Its typical usage was developed in the Balkans, to be a less objectionable code-word meaning genocide, but its intent was to best avoid the obvious pitfalls of longstanding international treaty laws prohibiting war crimes. Compare with racism.
Arab nationalism
nationalist ideology, which rose to prominence amongst Arabs from the early 20th century onwards. Its central premise is that the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, constitute one nation and are bound together by their common linguistic, cultural, and historical heritage. One of the primary goals of Arab nationalism is the end, or at least the minimization, of direct Western influence in the Arab World, and the removal of those Arab governments considered to be dependent upon acquiescence to Western interests to the detriment of their people. Compare with nationalism.
Islamic Fundamentalism
A movement within Islam calling for a return to traditional ways and a rejection of alien ideologies that gained strength during the second half of the 20th century. Compare with Protestantism.
Feminism
the idea that women should have political, social, sexual, intellectual and economic rights equal to those of men. It involves various movements, theories, and philosophies, all concerned with issues of gender difference, that advocate equality for women and the campaign for women's rights and interests. Simone de Beauvoir with the Second Sex was highly influential in the second wave. Compare with socialism.
Existentialism
Didn't believe that a supreme being could have stashed the nature of humanity, or given life meaning (partly following Nietzche's theory), and therefore were driven by despair. Most followers were atheist. Contrast with Lutheranism: belief/disbelief by faith.
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