APUSH VOC: 14 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fort sumter
Charleston, South Carolina, held by federal troops but claimed by a seceded state. It was a cut off from supplies by Southern control of the harbor. Lincoln sent provisions and on April 12, 1861 the South fired on Fort Sumter beginning the Civil War.
habeas corpus
enables a person under arrest to obtain court hearing to see if she or he were being held legally. Lincoln suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus so that Anti-Unionists could be summarily arrested.
border states
Delaware, Maryland, Missouri and Kentucky remained in the Union when the other Southern States seceded. If these states seceded the Confederacy population would have increased by 50% in size and increase its supply. Lincoln had to declare he was not fighting the war to end slavery but to save the Union so that the Border States would remain in the Union.
jefferson davis
president of the Confederate Army, tried to increase his executive power during the war
anaconda plan
the Union used the Navy blockade the Southern ports which would cut off all essential supplies from reaching the South.
monitor vs merrimack
to fight the blockade by the Union the Confederates reconstructed the Merrimack and destroyed Union ships in the Chesapeake Bay. The Union sent in the Monitor to fight back neither side could claim a victory.
alabama
Confederate commerce raiders used the Alabama to capture more than 60 Union ships. It was eventually sunk and Great Britain agreed to pay the U.S. $15.5 million for damages.
emancipation proclamation
January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation that stated all slaves in rebelling states would be free.
gettysburg
General Lee lead the Confederate troops into Pennsylvania. He surprised the units in Gettysburg and the battle was the most crucial and bloodiest of the war. General George Pickett led a charge that broke the Confederate attack. The victory at Gettysburg belonged to Lincoln and the Union.
shermans march
General Sherman lead a force from Chattanooga, Tennessee to South Carolina destroying everything the Confederates could use to survive. He set fire to South Carolina's capital, Columbia.
john wilkes booth
a southern sympathizer, who shot and killed President Lincoln
copperheads
opposed the war and wanted to negotiate peace, often chastized
ex parte milligan
the Supreme Court ruled the government acted improperly in Indiana where civilians were subject to a military trial. The court ruled procedures could only be used when regular civilian courts were unavailable.
greenbacks
the U.S. treasury issued over $430 million dollars in paper currency in replacement of separate state currencies
morrill tariff act
protective, raised tariff rates to increase revenue and protect American manufactures
homestead act
promoted the settlement of the Great Plains offering free land to whoever could farm the land for at least five years
morrill land grant act
encouraged states to use the sale of federal land grants to maintain agricultural and technical colleges
13th amendment
made to forbid slavery, making slavery and involuntary servitude illegal; Ratified in 1865 after war ended; south had to ratify it to be readmitted to Union
vicksburg
battle for control of mississippi river. Union's goal to split Confederacy and restore free commerce to NW An attempt to take Vicksburg, Miss by water and from N. failed. Grant decided to take it from South and opened siege; Confederate forces unable to unite, and after about six weeks Vicksburg's defenders surrendered on July 4, 1863
trent affair
incident during American Civil War involving doctrine of freedom of seas that nearly precipitated war b/w Great Britain and US; Captain Charles Wilkes, commanding Union frigate San Jacinto, seized neutral British ship Trent two Confederate commissioners, James Murray Mason and John Slidell, who were seeking support of England and France for cause of Confederacy
first battle of bull run
Southern victory ended Northern illusion of a short Civil War
alexander hamilton stephens
(February 11, 1812 - March 4, 1883) an American politician from Georgia. He was Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also served as a U.S. Representative from Georgia (both before the Civil War and after Reconstruction) and as Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883.
thomas "stonewall" jackson
a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and probably the most revered Confederate commander after General Robert E. Lee. His military career includes such famous exploits as the audacious Valley Campaign of 1862 and as a corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, which the general survived, albeit with the loss of an arm to amputation. However, he died of complications of pneumonia eight days later.
winfield scott
was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy.
antietam
Southern failure to procure victory in the North meant no foreign support for the Confederacy. bloodiest day in the whole civil war. 23,000 total casualties
george mcclellan
was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Chronically underestimated force of confederate army, leading to failure of Peninsula Campaign
robert e lee
A top graduate of West Point, Lee distinguished himself as an exceptional soldier in the U.S. Army for thirty-two years. He is best known for fighting on behalf of the Confederate Army in the American Civil War.
confiscation acts
series of laws passed by federal government designed to liberate slaves in seceded states; authorized Union seizure of rebel property, and stated that all slaves who fought with Confederate military services were freed of further obligations to their masters; virtually emancipation act of all slaves in Confederacy
peninsula campaign
a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by circumventing the Confederate States Army in northern Virginia. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee changed the character of the campaign and turned it into a humiliating Union defeat.
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