APUSH Unit 1 Test: Economics Post Civil War Flashcards

Populist Party
Terms Definitions
economics post Civil War:
Economy was totally industrialized; expansion of railroads and new inventions were being constantly made, discovery of coal and other metals like gold were also found in the west and south; South turned to making their economy by having commercial farming, not sustenance farming
Dawes Act: 1887
Attempt to assimilate Native Americans into white society by breaking down Indian reservations and giving newcomers 160 acres of land to farm
Crime of '73:
embraced the gold standard and the demonetization of silver (a certain amount of paper or silver money was worth a certain amount of gold coins or bars)
Horizontal consolidation
when a two companies that share the same type of product or interest merge together to form one big firm
vertical consolidation
when a company takes over it's suppliers and customer's businesses so that it will have control of the whole process of producing its specialty product
farmer's alliances turn into
the Populist party
Populist join with who in the 1896 election:
Democrats
Why? (do they join with the Democrats)
William Bryan, their nomination for president, took up the bulk of the issues of the Populist party that he would fix as president; they had no choice but to go with the man that could potentially fix all their problems
In the end.... the Populist party put forth...
Tom Watson because William Bryan did not do all he had promised
William Bryan couldn't keep his promise because...
He lost the presidency to McKinley
McKinley's speech style was...
front porch speeches, in his hometown; very traditional
Bryan's speeches were...
highly radical; he traveled around from town to town, east to west delivering speeches but still did not win
Bryan lost because...
Employers of many people thought he was bad news campaigning for higher wages and less working hours so they told people they would lose their jobs if they voted for him
In the end the Populist Party...
in the end the Populist party died out because of the failure of the fusion between the Populist and Democratic parties
Social darwinists believed in:
social evolution over time; strongest and most capable are allowed to survive in society, the weak and vulnerable are not
William Graham Sumner advocated for...
social darwinism
railroad expansion
expanded more out west and south west and east; helped for the expansion of the west because there was availability of goods
American Federation of Labor
founded in 1886 by craft unions who elected Samuel Gompers as president; the major issues were higher wages and job security for workers
sherman antitrust act
required U.S government to regulate and investigate companies if suspected of having too much control over trusts or their small businesses
"Solid South"
refers to how much electoral support of the Democratic party the South had during reconstruction (solidly supported the Democratic party)
educational changes and leaders: evolving public schooling
more public schools were being amde because more and more people needed an education to get jobs and support their own individual economies
educational changes and leaders: Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862
donated land for colleges to be built upon
educational changes and leaders: Carnegie and Rockefeller
Both donated millions of dollars to build colelges
educational changes and leaders: availability of women
several universities started admitting women (smith especially)
characteristic's of Women's colleges
women teachers always and a sorority type lifestyle
how did this change other women's organizations?
paved the way fro women to be treated as equal to men, in both education and otherwise
government issues
high tariffs on imports and regulation and high rates of rr's, and communication companies; immigration services and laws; indian assimilation policies
Jacob Riis
a photographer that captured the essence of middle-class and lower-class living conditions and spaces
health improvements:
running water
health improvements:
medicine (aspirin) and medical and scientific research (symptoms were not diseases, x-ray, lab tests
health improvements:
public space- parks to be able to get away from the polluted air and walk around
Social gospel movement
a movement started to raise awareness of poverty and public health issues in cities and try to help the people in need with whatever they could provide
grangers
a bunch of organizations that formed together to teach new techniques in farming and show newly invented, efficient farming tools
outcome of reconstruction
didn't really protect A.A's from being discriminated but by law they had to have equal public space so they had separate facilities that although they were there,they were by far not equal to those of the whites
tariff rates
these were numerously disputed because they were, in some eyes, far too high, and were not enough in others. However, in farmer's eyes, taxation on imports was a very negative thing because then the price of their commerce had to be lowered
Plessy v. Ferguson
stated that each facility of both A.A and whites had to be equal and just
Interstate Commerce Act
designed to regulate railroad rates this act states that railroad companies must make the rates public and the long haul v.short haul rates must be the same amount of money
Pullman Strike
workers at the Pullman railroad company went on strike to raise the issue of higher wages and less hours of work
labor movement and characteristics
a movement caused by workers of many different specialties designed to raise every day common issues that they have- topics that are common usually are higher wages, less work hours, less taxation etc.
functions of Federal Government
regulate commerce; calm strikers, make immigration policies that are just and fair; balance, less taxation
"New South"
South is more balanced in both having an agricultural but also industrial economy
redeemers
conservatives working to fight against A.A rights and equal opportunity for each class
Immigration sources
Ireland, Poland, Europe, Mexico, Canada
Booker T. Washington
a A.A author, orator and educator who spoke on behalf of the black community to speak out about their issues against Jim Crow laws and other A.A restricting acts
Artists:
Winslow Homer, James Mcneil both painted naturalist techniques; modern technique
Authors:
Stephen Crane, Dreiser, Norris, Sinclair all wrote about various political issues surrounding realism and examples of naturalism and impressionism
John Dewey
one of the founders of the philosophy of pragmatism (practical ideas v. impractical which are no use) who influenced education and social reform and functional psychology that shows the effect of environments on one's metal and behavioral state
Jacob Coxey
did a march to raise awareness and money for unemployed people to be hired. This march, however long, did not work but this issue would soon come to be in the Social Security Act which provided unemployed life insurance
Ida B. Wells
A.A journalist who spent her life advocating for the civil rights movement, the women's suffrage movement, the women's rights movement and most of all the anti-lynching movement for A.A.
Tammany Hall
the democratic political machine that controlled NYC's politics and helped immigrants rise in politics particularly Irish immigrants. It controlled Democratic nominations and patronage
Patronage
the sponsorship of a company on a person or another business
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Definition:
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