12. America becomes a global power: 1900-1920s Flashcards

Terms Definitions
James G. Blaine
a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland
extreme nationalism; often to the point of belligerency
Commodore Matthew Perry
the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
Rough Riders
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
Insular Cases
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but self-governed in internal affairs
Open Door Notes
message sent by secretary of state John Hay in 1899 to Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy & Japan asking the countries not to interfere with US trading rights in China.
most-favored-nation clause
Part of RTA Act in 1834, allowed a nation to make a special agreement with another nation and give them a preferential low tariff rate.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama; Abrogated by U.S. in 1881
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000
"Colossus of the North"
The name given to America by Latin America; we were seen as the overbearing policeman, after Spanish-American War.
Gentleman's Agreement
An informal treaty between the United States and the Japanese government to stop Japanese immigration to the US
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Thorstein Veblen [The Theory of the Leisure Class]
This man was an influential social scientist who was harshly critical of the tycoons of the late 19th century. He wrote this book which satirically described tycoons. He proposed a new economic system where the power went in the hands of highly trained engineers.
the idea that the United States and Latin America should work together to support peace and increase trade
Alfred Thayer Mahan
In his book, The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783, he demonstrated that all great empires of modern times had possessed a large merchant marine and strong naval force
Commodore Dewey
On May 1, 1898 he easily crushed the Spanish fleet in Manila bay
Treaty of Paris (1898)
The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Teller Amendment
pledged that the US had no intention of annexing Cuba
leader of the Filipino insurrection against American rule
Boxer Rebellion
A secret society that organized a rebellion and attacked foreign embassies in Peking as an act of opposition to foreign dominance in China
Teddy Roosevelt's "Big Stick" Policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
this document granted american control over the panama canal zone in return of a US guarantee of Panamanian independence
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
A supplement to the Monroe Doctrine, it claimed the right of the US to exercise international police power in the Western Hemisphere and intervene in the affairs of Latin American Nations
Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the first president to do so.
Great White Fleet
President Theodore Roosevelt sent them around the world to show all nations (especially Japan) America's extensive naval power
Yellow Journalism
a technique of newspapers featuring sensationalism as a way to stir attention and increase sales
U. S. S. Maine
"start" of the Span-Amer war; exploded off the coast of cuba and it was blamed on spanish torpedoes; heightened by yellow journalists
Queen Liliokalani
-The last reigning queen of Hawaii
-her defense of native Hawaiian self rule led to a revolt by white settlers and to her dethronement
Walter Reed
this army doctor successfully conducted experiments in 1900 that showed Yellow Fever came from the bite of a species of a mosquito
Platt Amendment
A 1901 law that limited Cuba's power to conduct its own foreign policy
John Hay, Secretary of State
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal
this privilege enabled certain foreigners to have the right to remain subject to their own country's laws. the US had this privilege in China
Treaty of Portsmouth
This treaty, which ended Russo-Japanese War, was arbitrated by Theodore Roosevelt, for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize. He was the first American to be so honored
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Lincoln Steffens [The Shame of the Cities]
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title The Shame of the Cities.
Frank Norris [The Octopus]
a muckracker who wrote a book called The Octopus which said that railroads strangled farmers because it was too expensive
Ida Tarbell [History of Standard Oil Company]
This muckrakers book, History of Standard Oil COmpany, chronicled the abuses of the company and led to a court case that caused the breakup of the monopoly
Margaret Sanger
an outspoken social reformer who began the modern birth control movement
Anti-Saloon League
U.S. organization working for prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquors. Founded in 1893 as the Ohio Anti-Saloon League at Oberlin, Ohio, by representatives of temperance societies and evangelical Protestant churches, it came to wield great political influence.
Forest Reserve Act (1891)
Authorized the President to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves
a federal agent who engages in breaking up a trust into smaller companies
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or tampered with food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Bob LaFollette
spoke out against political corruption, business monopolies, and the unequal distribution of wealth in society. fought for citizens direct invovlvement in government and elections. supported management of natural resources, regulation of big businesses, labor unions, and the women's right to vote
Bull Moose Party
nickname for the progressive party in the 1912 election that supported the third party candidacy of theodore roosevelt
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
IWW ["Wobblies"]
Industrial workers of the world, most radical group. Under Haywood, envisioned utopian state run by workers. Small group, but accepted blacks, women, and immigrants
Underwood-Simmons Tariff
1914, lowered tariff, substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.
Pancho Villa
this mexican was angry after the US recognized Carranza as the leader of Mexico instead of him. He lead a bank of outlaws and invaded New Mexico, killing 17 Americans
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Italy, and Austria Hungry
Zimmerman Note/Telegraph
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of invading the US and recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Herbert Hoover, Food Administration
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution; provides food for allied soldiers
Sedition Act (1918)
1918 legislation that provided penalties for those who discouraged recruiting, obstructed bond sales, or who spoke out against the US and its involvement in WWI
Versailles Treaty
June 28, 1919
- German territory in the east and west reduced
- Army, Navy, and Air Force Disbanded
- pay 37 billion in reparations
- no German militarization of the Riland
- no german union with austria
- no german importation of guns
- no building/buying of submarines
- german admit of guilt (article 231)
*left germany bitter and angry->lead into WWII
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
This senate "reservationist" had qualms about US membership in the League of Nations, but otherwise supported the Treaty of Versailles
John Dewey [The School and Society]
"progressive education", "learning by doing",American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
16th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
17th Amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Square Deal
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
A strike organized by the United Mine Workers of America that took place in Pennsylvania. Notable for Roosevelt's forcing of the coal corporations to cooperate with the strikers.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Panic of 1907
a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.
Ballinger-Pinchot controversy
Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.
Roosevelt's Osawatomie, KS Speech
Kansas speech,Teddy Roosevelt's speech given in Kansas on his Square Deal and "Big Stick" foreign policy. Roosevelt said, "speak softly and carry a big stick."
New Nationalism
Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them
"Big Bill" Haywood
A prominent figure in the American labor movement. He was leader of the Western Federation of Miners (WFM), a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party of America.
Jones Act (Philippines), 1916
Granted Phillipines territorial status and promised independence as soon as stable government was achieved
General John "Blackjack" Pershing
US commander, great leader and believed the allies needed to be more aggressive
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire
War Industries Board
This government agency oversaw the production of all American factories. It determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices; it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce.
Selective Service
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 18 to 26 to register for the military draft.
Big Four
The major allied leaders who made all of the important decisions at the Peace Conference at Versailles
Red Scare
The immediate post-World War I period when many Americans feared that communists were plotting to take over the US government
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
1911 fire in this company where over 140 women workers died; it led to new laws regulating work hours, working conditions, and fire codes
Hepburn Act (1906)
this legislation empowered the I.C.C. to fix reasonable maximum railroad rates
Upton Sinclair [The Jungle]
this writer exposed hideous conditions and practices within the meatpacking industry
Wisconsin, "Laboratory of Democracy"
The ideal way to use democracy for the benefit of everyone in the country
"Dollar Diplomacy"
The US policy of promoting and safeguarding American business investments and bank loans in Latin America by using US troops if nessecary
Socialist Party
Political parties formed in the unity of an international organization with a set beliefs inspired by the writings of Karl Marx. They desired economic and political philosophy favoring public or government control of property and income. Their goal was to end the capitalist system, distribute wealth more equally, and nationalize American industries
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Jones Act (Puerto Rico 1917)
act of the US congress by which Puerto Ricans were made US citizens
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Espionage Act (1917)
this 1917 law provided penalties for obstructing the recruitment of soldiers or for selling government war securities
Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
collective security
the attempt by numerous nations to prevent the possibility of one nation becoming too powerful and upsetting the political balance of power
Palmer raids
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
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