Glencoe Science Earth Science Chapter 3 Matter and Atomic Structure Flashcards

Terms Definitions
element
natural or articifial substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
atom
smallest particle of an element, having all the characteristics of that element; the basic building block of matter, consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons
nucleus
positively charged center of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons and surrounded by electrons in energy levels
proton
tiny atomic particle that has mass and a positive electrical charge
neutron
tiny atomic particle that is electrically neutral and has about the same mass as a proton
atomic number
number of protons contained in an element
mass number
the average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of an element (decimal number)
electron
tiny atomic particle with little mass and a negative electric charge that surrounds the nucleus in energy levels
energy level
represents the area in an atom where electrons are most likely to occur
valence electron
electron in an atom's outermost energy level
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers and the same chemical properties
atomic mass
combined number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
radioactivity
spontaneous process of decay, or breaking apart, through which unstable nuclei emit radiation
compound
substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined
chemical bond
force that holds the atoms of elements together in a compound
covalent bond
attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that holds the atoms together
molecule
combination of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
ions
electrically charged atoms or group of atoms
ionic bond
attractive force between two ions with opposite charge
chemical reaction
change of one or more substances into other substances
solution
homogenous mixture whose components cannot be distinguished and can be classified as liquid, gaseous, solid, or a combination
acid
Solution that contains Hydrogen ions (H+); on a scale of 0-14, acids are 0-6.9, with 0 being most acidic
base
Solution that contains Hydroxide ions (O-); on a scale of 0-14, 7.1-14, with 14 being most basic
crystalline structure
regular geometric pattern of particles in most solids, giving solid a definite shape and volume
glass
solid that consists of densly packed atoms with a random arrangement and lacks crystals or has crystals that are not visible
evaporation
process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas
sublimation
process by which a solid slowly changes to a gas without first entering a liquid state
plasma
hot, highly ionized, electrically conducting gas
condensation
change of matter from a gas to a liquid
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