The Language of Literature Terms - Praxis 0041 Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
Alexandrine
line of 12 syllables, usually in French poetry
Allegory
story with more than one meaning, usually moral or religious
Alliteration
two or more words beginning with the same sound
Allusion
indirect or passing reference
Anapest
two unaccented syllables followed by an accented one (by the light / of the moon)
Antagonist
primary character in a drama or novel with whom the hero is in conflict
Anticlimax
event following the climax, slightly less important than the climax
Antihero
protagonist who lacks heroic qualities such as strength, valor, spirit
Archetype
basic model; a prototype representing essential characteristics
Assonance
repetition of vowel sounds with different consonant sounds (same, main)
Ballad
story in verse form passed orally from one generation to the next, usually set to music
Bathos
a writer in attempting to describe the sublime, descends to the absurd
Black Comedy
shows cynicism and despair, uses sardonic humor
Blank verse
unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter
Caesura
a pause in a line indicated by a punctuation mark
Climax
highest point of the action
Closed Couplet
pair of rhyming lines that form a complete sentence
Closet drama
play in verse form, to be read but not staged
Comedy
light, amusing story with a happy ending
Comedy of Manners
comedy which ridicules the social customs of a period
Comic Relief
humorous interludes, usually found in tragedy, which relieve tension and heighten the tragic element
Commedia dell'arte
early Italian form od drama, featuring boisterous, improvised dialogue
Consonance
some consonant sound is repeated in a line (moon, made, said, seed)
Couplet
pair of rhyming lines
Dactyl
a meterical foot of three syllables in which the first syllable receives the strongest stress (hickory / dickory)
Denouncement
conclusion to a story
Dime novel
sheap form of melodramatic fiction popular in the late 19th century
Dimeter
metrical line of two feet
Dissonance
a pattern of disharmonious sounds in words or rhythms
Double rhyme
two rhyming syllables (very, bury)
Drama
dialogue between two or more persons presented by actors on a stage
Dramatic monologue
in which only one character speaks
Elegy
verse which expresses a lament for the dead
Elision
two syllalbes are combined into one (e'en for even)
English or Shakespearean
sonnet
contains arhyme scheme of ababcdcdefefgg in a 14-line form
Epic
in which the actions of a hero are described
Epigram
short poem or saying, dealing with a single thought or event
Exposition
formal speech or writing which answers a question; setting forth of the meaning or purpose of a work
Fable
story in which humans are represented by animal characters, and which teached a moral or lession
Farce
provokes amusement and uses exaggerated actions, characters, and situations
Folktale
story handed down by word of mouth from one generation to another
Foot
group of syllables serving as a unit or meter
Foreshadowing
Foreshadowing
arrangement of events in a narrative so that later events are prepared for; a suggestion at the beginning that
indicates the outcome or end
Formal essay
non-fiction article which presents information in an impersonal way
Free verse
without meter or rhyme
Gothic novel
novel of the late 18th and early 19th century featuring a tale of romance or horror, containing elements of the
supernatural
Haiku
lyric consisting of 17 syllables arranged in three lines of 5, 7, and 5 respectively
Harlequin
character in comedy or pantomime, derives from the young lover, Arlecchino, in the commedia dell'arte
Heroic couplets
rhyming couplets in iambic pentameter
Hexameter
metrical line of six feet
High comedy
comedy with clever, amusing dialogue
Hyperbole
figure of speech containing an exaggeration (as old as the hills)
Iamb
two-syllable foot, the second syllable received more stress than the first
Iambic pentameter
line made up of five iambs
Idyll
description of a simple and charming scene, usually referring to country life
Imagery
pictures or feelings that language evokes in the mind of the reader
Informal essay
non-fiction article which reflects the author's personality
Italain sonnet
form of verse containing an octave followed by a sestet, a 14-line form in which the rhyme scheme is
abbaabbacdecde or cdcdcd
Kabuki
Japanese, featuring all-male cast, colorful costumes and make-up, and lively acting style
Limerik
five-line form, humorous, with a rhyme scheme of aabba
Limited point of view
events are described from the point of view of a single character
Low comedy
slapstick comedy containing loud, boisterous actions and absurd situations
Lyric poetry
short, song-like verse, which reveals the thoughts and feeling of the speaker
Madrigal
lyric form, usually deals with love, can be set to music
Malapropism
the incorrect use of polysyllabic words
Melodrama
portrays a moral conflict
Metaophor
comparison between 2 unlike things to suggest a likeness between he two (a heart of gold)
Meter
patterned arrangement of syllables in verse form according to stress and length
Monometer
metrical line of one foot
Motivation
reason for a character's actions
Narration
story or account of events
Nemesis
the goddess (G.) of retributive justice; a just punishment
Octometer
metrical line of 8 feet
Octave
8-line stanza
Ode
elaborate lyric of high praise and noble feeling
Omniscent point of view
events are described from the point of view of several characters
Onomatopeia
word whose sound suggests the sound it refers to (the swish of a broom
Open couplet
pair of rhyming lines that continues the sentence from one pair of lines to another
Oxymoron
figure of speech containing contradictory meanings and words (cruel kindness)
Palindrome
word or sentence which reads the same backwards and forwards
Panegyric
speech or poem in lavish praise of a person or group
Parable
religious story which contains a moral or lesson
Paradox
statement that says 2 opposite things
Parody
the ideas of a writer are imitated through word and style to make them ridiculous
Passion play
presents the death and resurrection of a god, usually of Jesus Christ
Pastoral
lyric form, portrays the shepherds and country life
Pathos
evoking of tenderness, pity, or sorrow in a work
Personification
representation of a thing as a person; implying human qualities
Picaresque story
Spanish literay form of the 1500s describing the events surrounding a picaro - a shrewd, dishonest hero
Platitude
dull, commonplace remark (you can't have your cake and eat it)
Plot
series of events occurring within a perios of time, consisting of the exposition, rising action, climax, and
denouement
Poetic justice
good is properly rewarded, evil punished
Point of view
story can be presented in the first person in which the narrator is part of the story; or in the third person, in which
the narrator is distant from the action
Portmanteau w
ord formed by combining two or more words (Jabberwocky
Protagonist
main character in a drama or novel around whom the action centers
Quatrain
4-line stanza
Realism
litery movement during the 1800s which stressed truth and accuracy
Rhyme
sounds are repeated within or at the ends of lines
Rhyme scheme
if the words at the ends of two or more lines rhyme, the letter represents the first rhyme sound, b the second, c the
third, and so on
Rising action
builds on the given information to create suspense
Romance
long, narrative describing an adventure story about chivalric heroes
Romantic comedy
story about love which leads to a happy ending
Romanticism
literary movement during 1700 - mid-1800s, which praised human emotions, the beauty and goodness of the
universe
Rondel
13 or 14-line verse in which the first and second lines are repeated at the middle and end (ABba abAB abbaAB
Satire
use of irony, ridicule, or sarcasm to expose and attack human vices
Scanning
marking poetry to find its metrical pattern
Sctology
an interest in the treatment of obscene matter, espacially in literature
Sestet
final six lines of a sonnet; stanza of six lines
Setting
time and place in which a story occurs
Simile
comparison between 2 unlike things usually introduced by like or as
Sonnet
verse of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter and containing a certain arrangement of rhymes
Spondee
metrical foot composed of two heavily accented syllables (death's door)
Stress meters
number of stressed syllables in a line
Style
manner in which a writer uses words to create literature
Surrealism
movement originating in France during the 1920s; the expression of the unconscious mind in art and literature
Syllabic meter
number of syllables in a line
Syncdoche
figure of speech in which the part stands for the whole (Vancouver won the match; Vancouver stands for the team)
Tanka
Japanese lyric form of 31 syllables in lines of 5,7,5,7, and 7 syllables respectively
Tautology
repetition of words or ideas (you, yourself, personally…)
Theater of the Absurd
depicts the confusing and illogical elements of life
Theme
main idea of a literary work, develops from the interaction of plot and character
Tradegy
story of a person or persons who face misfortune and which ends in disaster (Hamlet)
Tragi-comedy
serious situation that ends happily
Trochee
metrical foot of two syllables: the first accented, the second unaccented
Yellow journalism
sensational journalism during the 1880s in America
3000 BC - Literature types
Early literature (fables, epics, histories, hymns, myths)
800-475 BC - Literature types
Lyric age (epic poetry, lyric poetry)
475 to 300 BC - Literature types
Attic age (tragedy, comedy stories)
300 to 146 BC - Literature types
Alexandrian age (pastorla poetry)
146 BC to 529 AD - Literature types
Greco-Roman age (drama, myths, anthologies)
400-1400 AD - Literature type
Middle ages (legends, epic and lyric poetry, romances)
1300 - 1600 - Literature type
Renaissance (sonnets, blank verse, plays, novels, essays)
1600 - 1700 Literature type
Age of Reason
1750-1850 - Literature type
Romanticism
1850-1900 - Literature type
Realism
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