Anatomy - The Thorax Class Questions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Which ribs are "true ribs"
This is different from TYPICAL ribs
The sternal angle is associated with which costochondral level?
The descending aorta, vena cava, and thoracic duct are associated with which area of the mediastinum?
What nerve innervates pec minor?
medial pectoral nerve
A patient presents to the ER with a posterior upper thorax asymmetry known as a "scapular wing". Which nerve is damaged?
long thoracic nerve
Where does the middle esophageal constriction occur?
where the aortic arch and left bronchus cross at the anterior surface
The diaphragmatic opening at T10 contains the following except: Lymphatics, esophagus, vagus, inferior vena cava
inf vena cava
The medial arcuate ligament originates from:L2 to transverse process of L1L1 transverse to inferior border of 12 ribL3 vertebral body to L1 bodyL2 vertebral body to T12 vertebral body
L2 to transverse of L1
A patient presents with a lung mass in the posterior apex of the lung. There is atrophy of the left limb and eyelid droop. What cancer is suspected?
All of the following are branches off the first part of the subclavian artery except:vertebral arterycostovertebral arteryinternal thoracic arterythyrocervical artery
what is the portion covering the superior aspect of the lung that is an extension of the endothoracic fascia?
suprapleural membrane
the pericardial cavity is located:a. between the arteries and veins of the heartb. between the serous and fibrous pericardiumc. between the visercal and parietal serous pericardiumd. between the heart and the lungs
between the visceral and parietal
the most common site of an "azygous" lobe is in which lung?
A patient presents with SOB and a chest xray shows a collapsed lung. What is this consistent with?primary atelectasissecondary atelectasispenumoconiosistertiary atelectasis
The respiratory zone of the pulmonary system consists of all of the following except: alveolusalveolar ductsrespiratory brochusterminal bronchiolesconducting bronchioles
Terminal and conducting bronchioles
If in the OR, you have damage posterior to the hila of the lungs, what nerve is most likely damaged?
the transverse pericardial sinus is the gab between which of the following?vena cava and aorta/pulmonary trunksuperior and inferior vena cavaarch of the azygous and descending aortaSVC and the arch of the aorta
vena cava and aorta/pulmonary trunk
Parasympathetic innervation of the heart does all of the following except:slow heart ratedilate coronary arteriesreduce contractile forcerestrict coronary arteries
dilate coronary arteries
What separates the sinus venarum from the atrium proper?
crista terminalis
Which of the following is NOT associated with the right ventricle? InfundibulumOval fossasupraventricular crestmoderator band
oval fossa
Which of the following relationships is incorrect?truncus arteriosus forms the aorta and pulmonary trunkbulbous cordis forms the conus arteriosus and aortic vestibuleprimative ventricle forms the traveculae of right and left ventriclessinus venosus forms
At birth if your fossa ovalis fails to form, what will happen to blood flow?
bloow will frlow from right atrium to left atrium
trachea formation begins at what week?3, 6, 8, or 4
What diverts the umbilical blood flow around the liver in the fetus?hepatic portal systemductus arteriosusductus venosusumbilical vein
ductus vensosus
the visceral pleura is derived from:epitheliasomatic mesodermsplanchnic mesodermectoderm
splanchnic mesoderm
Fill in the blank: transverse process attaches to the ___ of the rib.
The innervation of pec minor is the ____ nerve
Medial pectoral
The weakest part of the rib is the _____.
The function of the ____ is to protract and hold the scapula against the thoracic wall.
serratus anterior
75% of lymphatic drainage of the breast is to the ___ lymph node
Aspiration is most likely to occur in which main bronchus?
the 3rd constriction of the esophagus is when it passes through the ____.
Leakage and accumulation of lymph in the thoracic cavity is referred to as a _____.
the ligamentum arteriosum is a remnant of the fetal _____.
ductus arteriosus
The narrowing of the aoritc arch called ____ results in decresased pressure in the lower extremities
coarctation of the aorta
THe ___ ligament is formed as a continuation of the parietal and visceral pleura
blood is the pleura cavity is called ____
the portion of the airway going from the trachea to the terminal bronchia is called the ____, which the portion going from the respiratory bronchiole to the alveoli is the ____.
conducting, respiratory
the most inferior part of the superior lobe on the left lung is termed the ____.
The ___ nerve runs anterior to the hilum and innervatesthe diaphragm and the ____ nerve runs posterior to the hilum
phrenic, vagus
The ____ pericardial sinus runs between the aorta and pulmonary artery in front of the superior vena cava.
The ___ division of the mediastinum contains the thymus and parasternal lymph nodes.
The apex of the heart is at the level of the ____ intercostal space..
left 5th
The ___ separates that rough and smooth regions of the right atrium
crista terminalis
the thick layer of cardiac muscle is called the ___.
The sudden occlusion of a coronary artery results in a ___.
myocardial infarction
the foramen ovale closes shortly after birth and becomes the ___
fossa ovalis
list 3 features of the typical rib?
head, neck, tubercle, body with costal groove and VAN
Explain what features are located in the intercostal groove
vein, artery, nerve
What structures are found in the hilum of the lung
main bronchus, pulmonary artery, 2 pulmonary veins, bronchial arteries, bronchial veins, vagus nerve
what is unique about the first intercostal nerve?
it has no anterior cutaneous branch
list 3 structures located in the posterior mediastinum
esophagus, descending aorta, azygous, hemiazygous, thoracic duct
Trace the blood flow through the heart starting with the vena cavae.
right atrium - through tricuspid valve - right ventricle through pulmonary semilunar - out pulmonary trunk/arteries to lungs.
Deoxygenated blood comes back through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium - through the mitral valve and into the left ventricle. - through aortic semilunar and out aorta to the body.
which intercostal muscles depress and which elevate the ribs?
external intercostals elevate, interchondrous part of internal elevate. interosseous part of internal depress and innermost depress
Describe the divisions of the right bronchus to the alveoli as it exits the hilum of the lung
right main bronchus -- secondary (lobar) bronchi -- tertiary (segmental) bronchi -- conducting bronchiole -- terminal bronchiole -- respiratory bronchiole --- alveolar ducts - sacs - alveoli
list the atypical ribs
1, 2, 10, 11, 12
list the branches that come off the arch of the aorta
right brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian
Describe the 2 heart sounds
lub - when tricuspid/mitral valves close, pushing blood into ventricle.
dub - when seminlunar valves close after blood is pushed through ventricles into aorta or lungs
3 features of right ventricle
infundibulum, ventricle proper, moderator band (septomarginal trabechulae), supraventricular crest
list the 3 sets of lymph nodes in the thoracic wall
parasternal, intercostal, diaphragmatic
what causes nipple retraction?
mammary duct shortening
define gynecomastia
enlargement of breasts in adolescent males
how would you locate a particular segment of lung during surgery?
locate the vein which runs between lung segments
what strucutres bypass the lung in fetal circulation
foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus
what is the significance of the transverse sinus for surgeons during coronary bypass?
they can slip their finger int he sinus and clamp the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
define valvular insufficiency
failure of the valves to close, causing blood to backflow, which can leads to hypertrophy of ventricles
List origin, insertion, innervation, and action of pec major
origin: medial half of anterior clavicle, 1-6 costal cartilage, sternum
insertion: lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
innervation: medial and lateral pectoral nerve
action: adduction, medial rotation. clavicular head flexes glenohumeral joint. sternocostal head depresses glenohumeral joint
transposition of heart is termed?
isolated dextrocardia
Which of the following is incorrect?truncus arteriosus forms the aorta and pulmonary trunkbulbous cordis forms the conus arteriosus and aortic vestibuleprimitive ventricle forms the taveculae of right and left ventriclessinus venosus forms ductus venosum
incorrect: sinus venosus forms ductus venosum
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