Anatomy Coloring Book Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Anatomic Planes & Sections - Median
Midline longitudinal plan dividing the head and torso into right and left halves. Also called the mid-sagittal plane.
Anatomic Planes & Sections - Sagittal
Longitudinal plane dividing the head an torso into left and right parts - parallel to median plane.
Anatomic Planes & Sections - Coronal
Longitudinal plane dividing the body or its parts into front and back halves or parts.
Anatomic Planes & Sections - Transverse
Divides the body into upper and lower halves or parts. Perpendicular to the longitudinal planes.
Terms of Position & Direction - Cranial
Refers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure of the body. Not used with respect to the limbs.
Terms of Position & Direction - Rostral
Refers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure of the body. Not used with respect to the limbs. Equivalent to Cranial
Terms of Position & Direction - Anterior
Refer to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure of the body. (Equivalent, but preferred, to the term "ventral".)
Terms of Position & Direction - Ventral
Refer to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure of the body. (Equivalent, but preferred, to the term "anterior".)
Terms of Position & Direction - Posterior
Refer to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body.
Terms of Position & Direction - Dorsal
Refer to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body. Ther term "posterior" is preferred.
Terms of Position & Direction - Medial
Term refers to a structure that is closer to the median plane than another structure in the body. "Medial" is not synonymous with "median".
Terms of Position & Direction - Lateral
Terms refers to a structure that is further away from the median plane than another structure in the body
Terms of Position & Direction - Lateral
This term refers to a structure that is further away from the median plane than another structure in the body.
Terms of Position & Direction - Proximal
Employed only with reference to the limbs, this term refers to a structure being closer to the median plane or root of the limb than another structure in the limb.
Terms of Position & Direction - Distal
Employed only with reference to the limbs, this term refers to a structure being further away from the median plane or the root of the limb than another structure in the limb.
Terms of Position & Direction - Caudal
Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or the lower part of the body than another structure in the body. Not used with respect to the limbs.
Terms of Position & Direction - Inferior
Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or the lower part of the body than another structure in the body. Not used with respect to the limbs.
Terms of Position & Direction - Superficial
This term is synonymous with external. Related to the reference point on the chest wall, a structure closer to the surface of the body.
Terms of Position & Direction - Deep
This terms is synonymous with "internal" A structure further away from the surface.
Terms of Position & Direction - Ipsilateral
Means "on the same side" as the reference point
Terms of Position & Direction - Contralateral
Means "on the opposite side" of the reference point
Systems of the Body - Skeletal
This system consists of the bones and their periosteum and the ligaments that secure the bones at joints. By extension, this system could include the varied fasciae that ensheath the body wall/skeletal muscles that contribute to the body's structural stability.
Systems of the Body - Articular
This sytem comprises the joints, both movable and fixed and the related structures, including joint capsules, synovial membranes and discs/menisci.
Systems of the Body - Muscular
This system include the skeletal muscles that move the skeleton, the face and other structures that give form to the body. The cardiac muscle of the heart walls and the smooth muscle of the walls of viscera and vessels and in the skin.
Systems of the Body - Cardiovascular
This system consists of the four-chambered heart, arteries conducting blood to the tissues, capillaries through which nutrients, gases, and molecular material pass to and from the tissues, and veins returning blood from the tissues to the heart. Broadly interpreted, the vardiovascular system includes the lymphatic system.
Systems of the Body - Lymphatic
This system is a system of vessels assisting the veins in recovering the body's tissue fluids and returning them to the heart. The body is about 60% water, and the veins alone are generally incapable of meeting the demands of tissue drainage. Lymph nodes, which filter lymph, are located throughout the body.
Systems of the Body - Nervous
This system consists of impulse-generating conducting tissue organized into a central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral nervous system (nerves) which includes the visceral (autonomic) nervous system involved in involuntary "fight or flight" and vegetative responses.
Systems of the Body - Endocrine
This system consists of glands that secrete chemical agents (hormones) into the tissue fluids and blood, affecting the function of multiple areas of the body. Many of these glands are under some control by the brain (hypothalamus). Hormones help maintain balanced metabolic functions in many of the body's systems.
Systems of the Body - Integumentary
This system is the skin, replete with glands, sensory receptors, vessels, immune cells and antibodies, and layers of cells and keratin that resist environmental factors harmful to the body.
Systems of the Body - Respiratory
This system consists of the upper (nose through larynx) and lower respiratory tract (trachea through the air spaces of the lungs). Most of the tract is airway, only the air spaces (alveoli) and very small bronchioles exchange gases between alveoli and the lung capillaries.
Systems of the Body - Digestive
This system is concerned with the breakdown, digestion, and assimilation of food as well as excretion of the residua. Its tract begins with the mouth and continues down to the abdomen, wherein it takes a convoluted course to open again at the anus. Associated glands include the liver, and pancreas, and the biliary system (gall bladder and related ducts).
Systems of the Body - Urinary
This system is concerned with the conservation of water and maintenance of a neutral acid-base balance in the body fluids. The kidneys are the main functionaries of this system; residual fluid (urine) is excreted through ureters to the urinary bladder for retention and discharged to the outside through the urethra.
Systems of the Body - Immune/Lymphoid
This system consists of organs concerned with body defense; thymus, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, and smaller aggregates of lymphoid tissue. This system, including a diffuse arrangment of immune-related cells throughout the body, is concerned with resistance to invasive microorganinisms and the removal of damaged or otherwise abnormal cells.
Systems of the Body - Female Reproductive
This system is concerned with the secretion of sex hormones, production an transportation of germ cells (ova), the fertilization site, maintenance of the developing embryo/fetus and initial sustenance of the newborn.
Systems of the Body - Male Reproductive
This system is concerned with the secretion of male sex hormones, formation and maintenance of germ cells (spern), and transport of germ cells to the female geital tract.
Head - Frontal
Forehead
Head - Temporal
Temple
Head - Orbital
Eye, Cavity/walls
Head - Nasal
Nose, cavity/walls
Head - Buccal
Cheek
Head - Oral
Mouth cavity
Head - Mandibular
Lower Jaw
Neck - Anterior Cervical
Front of Neck
Neck - Lateral Cervical
Side of neck
Neck - Supraclavicular
Above clavicle
Thorax - Pectoral
Anterior chest
Adbominopelvic - Abdominal
Abdomen
Adbominopelvic - Inguinal
Groin
Adbominopelvic - Pelvic
Pelvis
Adbominopelvic - Pubic
Genital region
Adbominopelvic - Genital
Reproductive organs
Adbominopelvic - Pudendal
Female genitals
Adbominopelvic - Perineal
Between pubis and coccyx
Upper Limb - Deltoid
Shoulder / Upper arm
Upper Lib - Axillary
Armpit
Upper Limb - Brachial
Arm
Upper Limb - Antecubital
Front of elbow
Upper Limb - Antebrachial
Forearm
Upper Limb - Carpal
Wrist
Upper Limb - Hand: Palmar
Palm
Upper Limb - Hand: Digital
Fingers
Lower Limb - Coxal
Hip
Lower Limb - Femoral
Thigh
Lower Limb - Patellar
Knee Cap
Lower-Limb Crural
Leg
Lower Limb - Fibular
Lateral leg
Lower Limb - Tarsal
Ankle
Lower limb - Foot: Dorsum
Top of foot
Lower Limb - Foot: Digital
Toes of foot
Head - Parietal
Top and sides of head
Head - Occipital
Back of head
Neck - Post-cervical (Nucchal)
Back of neck
Back - Scapular
Shoulder blade
Back - Vertebral
Spinal Column
Back - Paraspinal
Along side of spinal column
Back - Thoracic
Posterior Chest
Back - Lumbar
Lower Back
Back - Sacroiliac
Vertebro-pelvic joint
Back - Sacral
Posterior pelvis
Back - Coccygeal
Tail Bone
Upper Limb - Acromial
Top of shoulder
Upper Limb - Cubital
Elbow
Lower Limb - Gluteal
Buttock
Lower Limb - Popliteal
Back of knee
Closed Body Cavities
Cranial, Vertebral, Thoracic, Abdominopelvic
Open Visceral Cavities
Respiratory Tract, Urinary Tract, Digestive Tract, Mucosa
Cell membrane
The limiting lipoprotein membrane of the cell; retains internal structure; permits exportation and importation of material. Infolding/ outfolding of the cell membrane permits the introduction of material into the cell (endocytosis) or its expulsion (exocytosis) from the cell.
Nuclear membrane
porous, limiting lipoprotein membrane; regulates passage of molecules
Nucleoplasm
The nuclear substance containing chromatin (chromosomes during cell division) and RNA.
Nucleolus
A mass of largely RNA, it forms ribosobal RNA (RNAr) that passes into cytoplasm and becomes the site of protein synthesis.
Cytoplasm
the ground substance of the cell less the nucleus. Contains organelles and inclusions listed below.
Smooth / rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Membrane-lined tubules to which ribosomes may be attached (rough ER; flattened tubules) or not (smooth ER; rounded tubules). Rough ER is concerned with transport of protein synthesized at the ribosomes. Smooth ER synthesizes complex molecules called steroids in some cells; stores calcium ions in muscle; breaks down toxins in the liver
Ribosome
The site of protein synthesis where amino acids are strung in sequence as directed by messenger RNA from the nucleus.
Golgi complex
Flattened membrane-lined sacs that bud off small vesicles from the edges; collect secretory products and package teh export or cell use (e.g. lysomes)
Mitochondrion
membranous oblong structure in which the inner membrane is covoluted like a maze. Energy for cell operations is generated here through a complex series of reactions between oxygen and product of digestion (oxidative reactions)
Vacuoles
Membrane-lined containers that can merge with one another and other membrane-lined structures, such as the cell membranes function as transport vehicles.
Lysosome
membrane-lined conatiner of enzymes with great capacity to break down structure e.g. microorganisms, damaged cell parts, and ingested nutrients.
Centriole
bundle of microtubules in the shape of a short barrel; usually seen paired, perpendicular to one another. They give rise to spindles used by migrating chromatids during cell division
microtubules
formed of protein; provide structural support for the cell and/or its parts
microfilaments
are support structures formed of protein different from that of microtubules. In skeletal muscle, the proteins actin and myosin are examples of thin and thick microfilaments.
cell inclusion
aggregation of material within the cell that is not a functional part (organelle) of the cell - e.g. glycogen lipid
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