Anatomy Exam 1- FIU Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cytology
Study of Cells
Cytology
Basis is Electron Miostopy (EM)
Mollecular Biologists
study cells (cytology)
Histology
Study of tissue
Histotech
study tissues (histology) in histolab under pathologist
Gross Anatomy
Can be seen with naked eye. 3 categories: Surface, Regional, and Systemic.
Surface Anatomy
Art of palpation... relies on LANDMARKS... study of exterior human bodyneeded when drawing blood to hit needle in the right spot.
Regional Anatomy
Goes hand in hand with DISSECTION...Requires knowledge of everything from SURFACE TO BONES
Head, Neck, Thoracic, Extremities
Regional Gross Anatomy
Systemic
Approaches anatomy from systems.
Embryology Anatomy
Focuses on the growth of a fetus into a zygoteEmphasizes Morphology
Comparative Anatomy
Vertebrates
Embryology
Descriptive
Angiographic vascular sonographer
Looks at Blood Cells
CTs & MRIs
soft tissue and cross sections visible
MRI advantage
white and brain matter visible
CT Scan negative
claustrophobia during scan
Dental Xray
2-D
Renal Physiology
Function of Kidneys....urinary
Neurophysiology
Functions of Nervous System (Includes Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System)
Nervous System
Network that never sleeps
Cardiovascular Physiology
Function of heart, blood, and blood vessels
Cardiologists
studies hearts
Hematologists
study blood
Angiologists
Study blood vessels
Levels of Organization
CCTOSO- simplest to complexChemical, cellular, tissue, organ, ,system, organism
Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, System, Organism
Levels of organization from simplest to complex
Chemical Level of Organization
building blocks for cells
Skeletal System
2 parts: Axial and Appendicular
Axial Skeleton
Thorax (sternum and ribs), Vertebrates (vertebral column), and skull
Thorax, vertebrates, and skull
axial skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
(arms & Legs)Pectoral/ shoulder, scapula, and upper limb bones AND Pelvic/hip girdles, pelvic bones and lower limbs
Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles
appendicular skeleton
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
wiring of the body: cranial and spinal NERVES
Physiology
= Function
Endocrine System
contains: hormones, Ovaries/Testes, hypothalamus, hypoheseal/ pituitary glands, Thyroids, heart, Thymus, PORTION OF pancreas, adrenal glands, testes, pineal body
Orchic Glands
testes and ovaries
Gliomas
tumor cells
Hypothalamus
command center/ secrete hormones
Hormones
Chemical Messengers
Pituitary Glands
master, anterior, and posterior glands
Testes
Secrete hormones
Portion of Pancreas
considered to be HORMONAL
Cardiovascular System
plumbing of the body
Blood, Blood vessels, and Heart
composes CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Blood
fluid/ makes or breaks career decision
Embalmed
drained of blood. Cadavers are embalmed.
Lymphatic System
Bypass
Lymphatic System
includes: tonsils, spleen, thymus, bone marrow and lymph nodes
Lymph Nodes
cervical, artillery, lingual, and popileal lymph nodes
Urinary System
Basis is filtration/ treatment system of blood
Urinary System
goes through kidney, filtered, then emptied out through urethra
Responsiveness
Changes over time
Boundaries
Membranes separate ICF and ECG
Somatic Movement
Soma= bodyBody Movement: VOLUNTARY
Visceral
Visceral movement is INVOLUNTARY
Digestion
purpose is to feel cells; food is broken down to ATPEQUILIBRIUM is necessary btwn anabolism and catabolism
Metabolism
Sum of biochemical processes
Anabolism
Synthesize simple molecules into complex ones; metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller unitsanabolism > catabolism = too large, fat
Canabolism
set of pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energycanabolism > anabolism = too skinny, small
Excretion
waste products including:feces, CO2, water, and sweat
Reproduction
cellular: mitosis (replication of cells)organismal: gametes, ova, sperm
Anatomical Position
- reference point
Axial Skeleton
center... skull, vertebral column, thorax (ribs and sternum)contains:cephalus, vertebral column, thorax
Appendicular
Extremities contains: pectoral girdle (scapula, clavicle and humerus) pelvic girdles (femur, tibia, oscoxae)
Sagittal Plane
right and left separationmid sagittal: equal R& L para sagittal: off center, unequal r & l
Frontal/ Coronal Plane
Anterior separated from posterior (belly -anterior- and back -posterior-)
Transverse/ Horizontal/ Axial Plane
perpendicular to frontal/ coronal planeseparates inferior from superior.... upper body, lower body
Posterior/ Dorsal
back
Anterior. Ventral
Front
Superior/ Cranial
head (top)
Inferior/ Caudal
tail (bottom)
Lateral
away from median (towards sides of body)
Medial
towards median, towards belly button
Proximal
closest to point of attachment (shoulders)
distal
furthest away from point of attachment (fingers)
Superficial
visible
Deep
underlying
Doral Body Cavity
cranial (brain) and vertebral (spinal cord)
Ventral Body Cavity
front side of the body, contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity. thoracic cavity: contains:pleural cavity- lungs and superior mediastinum pericardial cavity- heart (sandwiched btwn lungs)abdominopelvic cavity: contains: abdominal cavity- digestive organs, abdominal viscera, intestinespelvic cavity- reproductive organs, urinary bladder, rectum (urogenital)
Membranes
histological lining
Membranes in Ventral Body Cavity
Visceral serosa, perietal serosa, serous fluid
Visceral Serosa
membrane found in Ventral Body cavity; encapsulates actual organ (like seram wrap)
Parietal Serosa
membrane found in Ventral Body Cavity; line cavity wall
Serous Fluid
found in ventral body cavity; in btwn. visceral and parietal serosa; LUBRICATES and DECREASES friction; very thin
lubricates and reduces friction
serous fluid
Peritoneum
abdominal area
Inguinal Region
aka iliac region is a bilateral regionright & left
Inguinal, Lumbar, and Hypochondriac Regions
are bilateral regions and are on both right and leftHypochondriac- upperLumbar- MiddleInguinal/Illiac- lower
Umbilical, Epigastric, and Hypogastric Regions
are all mid-line regionsEpigastric-upperumbilical- middleHypoGAStric- lower
Histology
Study of Tissue, works hand in hand with anatomy
TRUE Tissue
groups of cells w common and related functions
Sponge
Not a true tissue
Muscle Tissue
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Skeletal Muscle tissue
voluntary
Cardiac muscle tissue
involuntary, part of autonomic nervous system
Smooth muscle tissue
involuntary, part of Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
contains smooth and cardiac muscle tissue...which are all involuntary.
Epithelial Tissue
lining/barrier/ covering
Connective Tissue
support
Muscle Tissue
movement: somatic and visceral
Neural Tissue
Control
Epithelia Tissue
occurs in the body as a covering.
Functions of Endothelial Tissue
protection, absorption (GI tract), filtration (kidneys) and secretion
Golgi Apparatus
like GPS, sends and receives info
Glandular Epithelial Tissue
lining of secretory cells (exocytosis)
Composition of Epithelial Cells
close, packed cells with no extra cellular space
Special Attribute of Endothelial Cells
form continuous sheet, junction. There are 4 junctions on each side.
Endothelial Cell- JUNCTIONS
4 total junctions on each side... purpose is communication btwn neighboring cells.
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
Apical (apex) surface, lateral, base (membrane/lamina)
Lumin
Space
Cilia
moves things across cell; hair like projection
Microvili
Shorter, stubbier... increases surface area... located in Apex of cell
Epithelial Classification- Layers
Simple: single cell... layer is for absorption filtration, and thin barrierStratified (two or more layers) layer... common in high abrasion areas >>causes friction
Friction
caused by high abrasion areas
Epithelial Shape
nuclear shape conforms to cell shape
Squamous
w> h {___***____}
Cuboidal
{_o_} w=h
Columnar
h>w { } {O} {__}
Simple Squamous
cells laterally flattened; located in areas of filtration// rapid diffusion
Diffusion
particles moving from high to low concentration
Endothelial Lining
Fragile; provides frictionless lining; found in blood vessels and heart chambers
Spike in bp
can cause a dent in endothelial lining... caused by high cholesterol.. can lead to stroke... prevented by eating oatmeal
Phlebotomy Session
where we become aware of our endothelial lining
Mesothelial
epithelium found in lining organs
Mesothelioma
caused by prolonged exposure to asbestos
Simple Cuboidal
Spherical Nuclei; absorption and secretion; found in kidney tubules and secretory ducts
Hair like projection
cilia
Simple Columnar
single layer of tall cells aligned in rows; some have cilia; absorption and secretion... varies height...
Simple Cuboidal
Spherical nuclei
Simple Cuboidal
line kidney tubules and secretory ducts
Pseudostratified Columnar
cells vary in height, absorption and secretion, line trachea... pseudo bc still attached to base; appears to be stratified.
Goblet Cell
secretory cell that produces mucins, needed for lubrication
Stratified Squamous
most widespread in areas of wear and tear... superficial cells less viable than deep cells. Epidermis is keratinized (protein) other areas are not
Vermillian Area
where u apply lip liner... separates keratinized and non-keratinized area
Epidermis
=skin... is KERATINIZED
Deeper cells
more keratinized and more GERMATIVE
Stratified Columnar
rare tissue; forms large glands ducts and male urethra
Transitional
can change shape according to distension of organ.i.e. urinary bladder: empty: dome shaped, full:squamous
Connective Tissue
found throughout body and only exposed when there is an open wound
Classes of Tissue
connective proper, cartilage, bone, blood
Functions of Connective Tissue
binding/ support (ligament), protection (bones), insulation (adipose), transportation (blood)
Which is more resilient: endothelial cells or connective tissue?
Connective tissue is more resilient
Characteristics of CT
all have common origin: mesenchyme (stem cells>>embryonic)
Varying degrees of vascularity are found in...
Connective Tissue... cartilage (very little), dense connective bone, bonevascularity= blood supply
Extracellular Matrix
separates living from nonliving material things....CT.. bears weight, withstands tension and endures physical trauma.
Fibers in CT
collagen (most abundant), elastic, reticular
Collagen in CT
most abundant protein; thick, strong, high tensile strength
Elastic in CT
long, thin, found where elasticity is needed (skin, lungs, and blood vessel walls). Skin becomes flacid after time because of loss of elasticity/elastin.
Skin, lungs, and blood vessel walls need...
elastic/elastin/ elasticity
Reticular in CT
fine, collagenous fibers; support soft tissues....found in lymphnode, thymus, bone marrow and spleen
What type of CT fiber is found in spleen and lymphnodes?
reticular... support soft tissue
fibroblasts
fiber will develop
osteoblasts
osteocytes will develop, necessary for bone building and repair
chondroblasts
chrondocytes will develop
macrophages
WBCs
adipocytes
adipose will develop
melanocytes
pigments
Mast cells
produce histamine
histamine
allergies
Hallmark of Connective Tissue
extracellular space (endothelial cells are tight)
Areolar Loose CT
most widely distributed; supports and binds other tissues; reinforces organs; stores nutrients
Adipose
purpose is to insulate.
White adipose
found under skin
Brown adipose
found in newborns (also in bears bc they hybernate)
Adipose
adipocytes predominate; oil droplets displaces nuclei (flattens it); tissue vascularized; insulation and shock absorber
Spinal Cord
surrounded by fat
Cytoplasm
made up of adipose
What color is most adipose?
white
Which protein is most abundant?
Collagen
Tendons
attach muscle to bone
Dense Regular
parallel collagen fibers, regular arrangement, found in tendons
Dense Irregular
irregularly arranged collagen fibers...found in DERMIS,... covers: kidneys (renal capsule), bones, cartilages, muscles, and nerves
Periosteumn
dense CT that covers are bones... pericranium covers skull/head
Perimysium
dense CT that covers and bundles muscle fibers
Perineurium
dense CT that covers nerves
perichondrium
dense ct that covers cartilage
Chondroitin Sulfate
chemical constituent of cartilage
CArtilage
withstands tension and compresion
Whats is flexible, avascular, and lacks nerve fibers
cartilage...predominant in chondroblasts and chondrocytes
Chondrocytes
reside in lacunae (spaces)
Hyaline
most abundant cartilage, found in: nose/septum, costal cartilage, tracheal rings, larynx, embryonic skeleton, and epiphyseal plates
Cocaine
can erode hyaline cartilage found in septum
Epiglottis
type of elastic cartilage that diverts food away from esophagus
Epiglottis
type of elastic cartilage that diverts food away from esophagus
Auricular hematoma
causes cauliflower in ear
Meniscus
area btwn femur and tibia
Pubic Symphysis
loosens for parturition
hyaline cartilage
template for bone
hematopoietic
produces formed elements: RBC, WBC, platelets
Leukocytes are also
white blood cells
Fluid Connective Tissue
transports nutrients, oxygen, gases, waste products, microbes, biomolecules, and hormones
Muscle Tissue
highly cellular, vacularized, contains myofilaments (actin/myosin), 3 types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
Myocite
muscle cell
Skeletal Mucle
striated, attached to bones, somatic (voluntary) movements, large multinucleated myocites, and satellite cells with regenerative properties
Cardiac Muscle
exclusive to contractile walls of heart, contrations needed to propel bloos, uninucleate, intercalated discs
Pacemaker cells
establish regular rate of contractions (involuntary-part of ANS)
Smooth Muscle
no striations; spindle shaped/central nucleus, found in GI and urinary tracts, uterus, and blood vessels, contract via pacesetter cells
Pacesetter cells
contract smooth muscle
Pili muscle
found in dermis... when erected: pili erection which are gosebumps
Pili muscle erection
goose bumps
vasoconstriction
decrease diameter of lumen
vasodilation
increase diameter of lumin
Nuerons
longest cell in body; specialized for conduction; poor regenerative properties; found in CNS
Axon
projections>> propagate motor info (efferent neurons)
Dendrites
project sensory... AFFERENT
gliomas
tumor cells
Neuroglia
supportive framework for neural tissue; regulate interstitial composition and nutrient supply... maintains viability
Intergumentary System
largest organ
Skin
has 3 regions: epidermis, dermis, hypodermis (in order from most superficial to deepest)
Epidermis
most superficial region of skin
Dermis
2nd skin, most active
Hypodermis
deepest, contains subcutaneal adipose tissue (fat)
What is the only fix to aging?
stretching... face lift
Epidermis
keratinized, stratifies squamous, contains 4-5 layers,
Cells found in Epidermis
keratinocytes, melanocytes, merkel cells, and langerhans cells
Keratinocytes
waterproof
Melanocytes
melanon... pigment
Merkel Cells
receptors; how we perceive temperature change; detects pain, touch, pressure temperature
Langerhan cells
surveillance
Stratum basale
germative layer of white blood cells.. found in epidermis
Epidermal layers from deepest to most superficial
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, statum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and statum corneum
Stratum Lucidum
is a variable; only found in thick layer of skin (4+ layers)
Stratum Corneum aka horny layer
can be 20-30 layers (callous); composed of dead cells;
Dermis
composed of dense irregular CT
Dermabrasion
removing epidermis exposing dermis i.e. getting a nick while shaving and exposing change in color
Where do tattoos take place?
in Dermis aka 2nd skin
Mast Cells
produce histamine, neporin, and proteases
Dermis contain...
fibroblasts, macrophage, mast cells, and wbcs
Papillary layer of dermis
most superficial
reticular layer of dermis
deepest
Dermal papillae
creates ridges causes dermatoglyphics aka fingerprints
Neporin
overactivity causes hives
Striae
stretchmarks.. caused by microscopic tears (superficial)
Skin layers
change as u go from deepest to most superficial:cuboidal (stratum basale)> polygonal>squamouos (corneoum)
What happens in cold temperature?
blood vessels in papillary layer CONSTRICT to retain heat
Blisters
occur when epidermis is removed and dermis has fluid build up.... caused by friction i.e. new shoes
Striae Distensar
acute area of quick stretching caused by rapid weight loss or gain
Telanglectasia
spider veins/vessels! can be in papillary layer of eye, legs
Nevus Flammeus
rosey appearance to babies skin... aka post wine staincan worsen from strawberry (temporary) to cavenous (severe)laser treatment
Nevus Flammeus
rosey appearance to babies skin... aka post wine staincan worsen from strawberry (temporary) to cavenous (severe)laser treatment
Nevus Flammeus
rosey appearance to babies skin... aka post wine staincan worsen from strawberry (temporary) to cavenous (severe)laser treatment
dermal avulsion
removing epidermis and dermis; can be surgically transplanted back aka skin graft
Eccrine sweat gland
aka merocrine. most numerous; clear translucent sweat; sweat from forehead, palms, and soles
Aprocrine sweat gland
more viscious type; link to odoriferous emanation (BO); found in area near hair follicles like axilla, groin, and perineal
Ceruminous gland
produces ear wax...ear plugs=compacted cerumen
Mammary gland
inactive until lactation
sebaceous gland
produces oil, determines skin type (oily, normal, or dry). Oily skin wont allow premature wrinkles.
Nails
scalelike modification of dermis
eponychium
cuticles; act as barriers to prevent tinea linguilum; dermatophytes can cause infection
hyponychium
free area under nail.... prisoners of war would be tortured by putting flame under hyponchyum bc of high sensitivity
Hair
filamentrous strands of dead keratinized cells; produced by follicles; shaft projects from skin; root embedded in skin; pigmented by melanocytes; arrector pili is the smooth muscle attached to hair
arrector pili
smooth muscle attached to hair.... pili erection=goosebumps
pseudofolliculitis
inflammation caused by ingrown hair...autoimmune response... on beard: pseudofolliculitis barbaesolution:depillatory creamtreatment:topical aid
Hair is found..
entire body except for palms, soles, nipples, and genitalia regions
vellus
peach fuzz hair; varies in thickness
intermediate hair
found in extremities and upper back
terminal hair
coarse hair; found in scalp, eye brows, eye lashes, axilla, facial, and pubes
Lanugo
newborn hair that eventually falls out
Hair replacement
when people say they are balding.... hair is actually being replaced by vellus (fine hair; peach fuzz)
determinate hair
grows to specific length- ie eyebrows
vibrissae
nose hair; when cut, we're messing with filter
angora hair
hair that keeps growing.. scalp/beard
hirsut
too much androgen causes more hair than expected...can be a genetic or hormonal problem
sunburn
affects epidermis
2nd degree burn
affects dermis; nerves exposed so blisters occur
3rd degree burn
epidermis and dermis are burned off completely; % of coverage determines if person survives.
Basal Cell carcinoma
can be treated if caught early; can be malignant
Squamous cell carcinoma
can be malignant
malignant melanoma
can be deadly
How to check for skin cancer?
a-assymetry, b-border, c-color, d-diameter, e-elevation
cleavage langers
lines minimize scarring; incision perpendicular to cleavage line can delay healing; protects skin
What is descriptive embryology?
Embarks on the study of organogenesis... studies changes that occur in cells, tissues, and organs during the progressive stages of prenatal development.
what is developmental biology?
looks at anatomy from a molecular point of view
what is comparative anatomy?
focuses on comparison of vertebrates
Nephron
smallest functional unit of kidney
Organ
made up of several tissue types; stomach has all 4
System
collection of related organs; body has 11
pleura
lung
Neuroglia
supportive framework for neural tissue
What regulates interstitial composition and nutrient supply?
nueroglia
Neuroglia
maintains viability
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