Anatomy Spring Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The walls of the alveoli are composed largely of
simple squamous epithelium
The portion of the eye that prevents light from scattering in the eyeball is the
choroid
The substance which provides the eyeball with the most the material to maintain its shape is the
vitreous humor
Which of the following is not a refracting part of the eye
iris
The "white of the eye"
sclera
Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts through which light passes as it enters the eye
cornea, aqueous humor, lens, witreous humor
Cataracts result from changes in the
lens
Which of the following is NOT true of color blindness
it occurs most often in women
Which of the following is not true about lysozyme
it stimulates the rods and cones
The bacterial infection known as "pinkeye" is caused by irritation of the
sclera
The reflexive movement of the eyes medially when viewing close objects is called
convergence
An inflammation of the conjunctiva involves the
delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front of the eyeball
The sets of color receptors within the retina are snsitive to wavelengths of visible light that are
blue,green,and red
The oily secretions that libricate the eye are produced by the
meibomian glands
The portion of the eye that regulates the amount of light entering the eye, similar to the diaphragm of a camera, is the
iris
Meibomian glands are modified
sebaceous glands
The greatest visual acuity is found at the
fovea centralis
Accommodation is
adjustment of the thickness of the lens to make close vision possible
Tears are produced by the lacrimal glands located
above the lateral canthus of each eye
The "blind spot" is located at the
optic disk
The superior portion of the pharynx is called the
nasopharynx
Which of the following is NOT true of the lungs
both lungs have two lobes
The condition that leads to the deaths of many full-term newborn infants and is still incompletely understood is
SIDS
The conducting passageways of the respirtatory system include all of the following EXCEPT
alveoli
The auditory tubes, which drain the middle ear, open into the
nasopharyna
Air moving into and out of the lungs is
pulmondary ventilation
The respirtatory conducting passageways do all of the following EXCEPT
exchange gases
The blueish cast that results from inadequate exygenation of the tissues is called
cyanosis
Gas exchange occurs by
simple diffusion
Cessation of breathing is called
apnea
Cillia of the trachea propel contaminated mucus
toward the throat to be swallowed or spat out
Which of the following are the most damaging and disabling respiratory diseases at the present:
tuberculosis and pneumonia
Which of the following is NOT a feature of COPD
most patients have a genetic prediposition of COPD
Which of the following are NOT part of the respiratory zone structures
primary bronchi
The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by
both the hard and soft palate
The molecule that lowers surface tension in the alveoli, preventing lung collapse, is called
surfactant
Which of the following is NOT a function of the sinuses
they are olfactory receptors for smell
The adenoids are also called the
pharyngeal tonsils
The lipid molecule that coats the alveolar surfaces is called
surfactant
Internal respiration is
gas exhcnage between the blood and tissue cells
Which of the following bones does not contain paranasal sinuses
mandible
Which of the following is NOT true of lung cancer
it is more prevalent in males than females
Which of the following is NOT true of cystic fibrosis
it is rarely fatal
One of the most important stimuli leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is
increased carbone dioxide in the blood
Which of the following does not apply to the right primary bronchus
it is shorter than the left bronchus
Most carbon dioxide is transported in the plasma as
bicarbonate ion
Which of the following cannot be said of expiration
intrapulmonary volume increases when lungs recoil
Which of the following is NOT true of inspiration
relaxation of the external intercostals helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity
Which of the following is NOT one of the major processes controlled by hormones
body coordination
Hormone concetrations are usually regulated by
negative feadback mechanisms
Whhich of the following is NOT typical of changes that follow hormone binding
cellular mutations occur
Being libid soluble steriods can do all the following except
catalyze cyclic AMP
The type of endocrine stimulus that involves changing blood levels of certain ions and nutrients is called
humoral stimulus
The pituitary is located
in the turk's saddle of the sphenoid bone
Tropic hormones
stimulate other endocrine glands
The hormone that triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary is
progesterone
An enlargement of the thyroid is called
goiter
Which of the following is NOT a function of oxytocin
postpartum bleeding control
Another name for antidiuretic hormone is
vasopressin
Which of the following hormones exerts its effect primarily on the reproductive organs
follicle-stimulating hormone
The thyroid gland is located
below the Adam's Apple
The element necessary for thyroid function is
iodine
The antagonist to calcitonin is
parathormone
Which of the following is NOT produced by the adrenal cortex
epinephrine
Aldosterone is a
mineralocorticoid
When blood levels of aldosterone rise, the kidney tubules
reabsorb sodium
The enyzyme that is produced by the kidneys when blood pressure drops and that causes the release of aldosterone is
renin
Which of the following is NOT an action of catecholamines
decreased blood pressure
Insulin has a
hypoglycemic effect
Insulin causes
a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose
Which of the following is NOT a sign of diabetes mellitus
moon face
The hormone that appears to help regulate our sleep cycles is
melatonin
The hormone responsible for T cell maturation is
thymosin
Estrogens do all the following except
stimulate growth of facial hair
Which of the following is NOT true of androgens
they stimulate the corpus luteum
The corpus luteum produces
progesteron
The cells in the testes that produce testosterone are called
gonadotropic cells
The secondary sex characteristics brought about by testosterone do NOT include
development of breasts
This type of stem cell that produces all the formed elements except lymphocytes are
myeloid stem cells
A substance that the body reocgnizes as foreign
antigen
The universal recipient has blood type
AB
The type of leukocytes that became macrophages are
monocytes
Type O blood indicates all of the following except
presence of type O antigens
A clot that breaks away from a vessel wall and floats freely in the bloodstream is called an
embolus
The ion essential for clotting is
calcium
The type of leukocytes that would increase rapidly during allergies and infections of parasitic worms are
eosinophils
Which of the following does NOT describe erythrocytes
they are packed with organelles
In ABO blood typing, a person's blood that was type B would
clump with anti-B serum
Platelets are fragments of
megakaryocytes
During the vascular spasm phase of hemostasis, which chemical is released to bring about vasoconstriction
serotonin
Which of the following does NOT describe plasma
it is the color of red wine
Blood normal clots in
3 to 6 minutes
As a tissue, blood is
connective
In adults, blood cell formation occurs in all of the following except the
shaft of the femur
Thromboplastin and PF3 interact to form
thrombin
The process whereby the binding of antibodies to antigens causes RBCs to clump is called
agglutination
There are an average of_______ WBCs per cubis millimeter of blood
4,000-11,000
Which of the following are granulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Which of the following is NOT true of WBCs
they initiate the clotting process
Which of the following is not one of the physical characteristics of blood
sweet tasting
RBCs live an average of
100-120 days
Transfusion reactions can lead to all of the following except
hemophilia
Which of the following is the proper sequence of hemostasis
platelet plug formation, vascular spasm, coagulation
The type of leukocytes that contain large amounts of histamine are
basophils
The hormone that regulates erythrocyte production is called
erythropoietin
ABO blood groups are based on the presence of
A and B antigens
Of the formed elements, which is the most nermous
erythrocytes
Stoppage of blood flow is called
hemostasis
The term central nervous system refers to the
brain and spinal cord
Which is the correct sequence of events that follow a threshold potential
2. sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward. 1. the membrance becomes depolarized. 4. potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward while sodium is activel6 transported out of the cell. 3. the membrane becomes repolarized. ((2,1,4,3))
IN what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a polarized neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is
negatively charged and contains less sodium
Ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid are
ependymal cells
Which of the following is a traumatic brain injury
cerebral edema
Afferent nerves are also called
sensory nerves
Which of the following is the correct sequence of nerves that exit the spinal cord, going from superior to inferior
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
The subarachnoid space lies directly between the
arachnoid mater and pia mater
The part of the neuron that normall receives stimuli is called a
dendrite
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the
hypothalamus
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in
the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
Which of the following is the correct sequence from the outermost to innermost layers of the meninges
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Which of the following are light touch receptors
Meissner's corpuscles
The three major parts of the brain stem are the
midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
When a nerve fiber if polarized, the concentration of
sodium ions is higher on the outside of its membrane and potassium is higher on the inside
Lobe than containts the primary motor area
frontal lobe
Preparing the body for the fight-or-flight response is the role of the
sympathetic nervous system
Which of these effectors is NOT directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system
skeletal muscle
An action potential
is essential for impulse propagation
The blood brain barrier is effective against
metabolic waste such as urea
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are subdivisions of the
autonomic nervous system
Muscles and glands are
effectors
The spinal cord has gray matter on the
inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root
The central sulcus separates which lobes
frontal lobe from parietal lobe
Saltatory conduction
is faster than conduction on an unmyelinated fiber
The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the
medulla oblongata
The point at which an impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell is the
synapse
A myelinated nerve fiber is characterized as being ____, whereas an unmyelinated nerve fiber is characterized as being ____
white, and composes of white matter of the brain and spinal cord; gray and composes the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord
The groove separating the cerebral hemispheres is the
longitudinal fissure
Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called
ganglia
If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to Broca's area is damaged, what is the result
motor control of speech muscles is lost
Which of the following numbers of pairs of spinal nerves is correct
twevle thoracic
A neuron whose primary function is connecting other neurouns is called an
association neuron
The substance that is released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse is called
a neurotransmitter
Impluse conduction is fastest in neurons that are
myelinated
Myelin is defined as
a mass of white lipid material that insulates the axon of a neuron
Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which of the following ions diffuses out of the cell
potassium
Which of the following is the correct sequence in a typical reflex are
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a
sulcus
Elevated ridges on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called
gyri
The layer of the heart wall that contains cardiac muscle tissue is the
myocardium
Which of the following areas receives blood direction from the four pulmonary veins
left atrium
Which of the following blood vessels is not part of the systemic circulation
pulmonary arteries
The mitral valvye prevents blood from flowing from the
left ventricle to the left atrium
The tricuspid valve is located between the
right atrium and right ventricle
The superior vena cava empties
deoxygenated blood into the right atrium
Which of the following blood vessels carries oxygenated blood
pulmonary vein
The aoritc semilunar valve is composed of
three cusps and opens when the left ventricle contracts
The pacemaker of the heart is the
sinoatrial (SA) node
Which of the following is the correct path for the transmission of an impusle into the intrisic conduction system of the heart
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
A heart rate that is substantially slower than a normal one is caleld
bradycardia
Which vessel receives blood during right ventricular systole
pumonary trunk
The mitral valve is closed
when the ventricle is contracting
Blood enters which of these vessels during ventricular systole:
A)Aorta and C) pulmonary trunk ((BOTH A AND C))
When considering the lub-dup heart sounds
the first sound is longer and louder and is caused by closure of the AV valvues; the second sound is short and sharper and is caused by closure of semilunar valves
The volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat of the heart is called the
stroke volume
The path of blood flow in the vascular system is
arteries, arterioles, capillary beds, venules, veins
An increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity causes
a decrease in heart rate and cardiac output
Which of the following is NOT part of the inner ear?
ossicles
The hearing receptors are located within the
ossicles
The auditory ossicles are located within the
middle ear
Sound waves entering the external auditory canal hit the eardru, otherwise known as the
tymanic membrane
The anvil is actually the
incus
The hearing receptors of the organ of Corti are called
hair cells
The stapes transmits vibrations to the inner ear through the
oval window
Receptors stimulated by the movement of fluid or vibration are
mechanoreceptors
The portion of the bony labyrinth responsible for our sense of statis equilibrium is the
vestibule
An ear infection that follows a cold has passed from the throat through the auditory tube to the
middle ear
The fluid found between the osseous and membranous labryinths is the
perilymph
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