Axial Skeleton, Appendicular Skeleton and Arthrology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
At a joint, the bones are held together by what?
flexible connective tissue
The surface of the bone that makes up the joint in question is?
joint surface
What is the structural classification of joints defined by?
the presence or absence of space between a bone (the synovial cavity) and the type of CT holding it together.
What are joints that are held together by fibrous CT, lack a synovial cavity and allow little or nomovement
Fibrous joints
What are the three types of joints found in fibrous CT?
Sutures, Syndesmosis, and Gomphoses
What is the Gomphoses?
The fibrous joint that holds teeth to the alveolar process of the mandible & maxilla
Where are sutures found?
Binding the bones of the cranium
In what type of joint does the CT arrange as a bundle (ligament) or a sheet (interosseous membrane)?
Syndesmosis, a fibrous joint.
What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
Synchondrosis and symphysis
In what kind of joint are the bones held together by hyaline cartilage?
Synchondrosis, a cartilaginous joint.
In what kind of joint are the surfaces of the bones covered in hyaline cartilage with a fibrocartilagedisc between the bones?
Symphysis, a cartilaginous joint.
What type of joint has a distinct space between the joints, enclosed by a fibrous synovial capsuleand filled with lubricating synovial fluid secretedby the capsule?
Synovial Joints
What are tendons?
The CT bundles that attach muscle to bone
What two things help a tendon avoid injury as joints move?
Tendon sheath and bursa.
What are the six sub-types of synovial joints?
Planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle and ball and socket
What is the angular movement that results in a in the angle between articulating bones?
Kicking a ball would be an example of what type of angular movement?
What is extension?
Increasing the angle between articulating bones, usually to restore a joint to anatomical position from a flexed position.
What is the angular movement that extends a joint past the anatomical position?
Moving the palm backward at the wrist would be an example of what type of angular movement?
What is the movement of a bone away from themidline?
What is the movement of a bone toward the midline?
What is the movement of a distal body part in a circle?
What is the movement of the trunk from side to side?
lateral flexion
What is the angular movement of the bone revolving around its own longitudinal axis?
What is opposition?
The movement of the 1st metacarpal across the palm to touch the 5th digit.
What trait separates humans from mammals?
What is the movement of a bone superiorly?
Elevation, ex. shrugging shoulders
What is the movement of a bone inferiorly?
Depression, ex. opening the mouth
What is the movement of a body part anteriorly?
Protraction, ex. jutting out jaw/crossing arm
What is the movement of a body part posteriorly?
Retraction, ex. moving shoulders back to thrust out chest
What is the inversion of the ankle?
Moving the soles of the feet medially to face each other
What is eversion of the ankle?
Moving the soles of the feet so they face away from each other
What is dorsiflexion of the ankle?
Movement of the foot superiorly to bring the toes closer to the tibia
What is plantar flexion of the ankle?
movement of the foot inferiorly to point the toes or stand on the toes
What is supination of the forearm?
Movement of the forearm at the proximal and distal radioulnar joint so that the palms of the hand face superiorly or anteriorly
What is pronation of the forearm?
Movement of the forearm at the proximal and distal radioulnar joint so the palm of the hand is facing inferiorly or posteriorly
Which joint forms the jaw joint and opens and closes the mouth?
The Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
The atlas is responsible for what type of angular movement of the head?
Flexion and extension of the head
The axis is responsible for what type of angular movement of the head?
rotation of the head
What are the symphysis joints between the vertebral bodies that provide flexibility to the spine?
Intervertebral Disc Joints
What synovial joints provide for all the motion of the spine and vertebral bodies?
intervertebral facet joints
The glenohumeral of the shoulder is an exampleof what kind of joint?
Ball and socket joint
The elbow is formed by what three bones?
The humerus, the ulna and the radius
The elbow utilizes what type of joint?
A hinge joint
What is the largest and most complex joint in the body consisting of three joints in one synovial cavity?
The knee
What are the four ligaments that hold the bones of the knee joint together?
The ACL, PCL,(intracapsular) MCL and LCL (extracapsular)
The pectoral girdle consists of what two bones?
Clavicle and scapula
What three joints make up the shoulder?
The glenohumeral, acromioclavicular and scapulothoracic
What is the lateral bone of the forearm?
The radius
What three joints make up the shoulder?
The glenohumeral, acromioclavicular and scapulothoracic
What is the lateral bone of the forearm?
The radius
What is the medial bone of the forearm?
the ulna
How many times do the radius and the ulna articulate with each other?
three times, at the radioulnar joint, mid-shaft via the interosseous membrane and at the distal radioulnar joint
The bones of the carpals are joined together by what type of joints?
gliding joints
The proximal row of carpals listed laterally to medially are:
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
The distal row of carpals listed laterally to medially are:
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamus
The metacarpals articulate distally with the phalangeals at what joint?
The metacarpalphalangeal joint (MCP)
The joints inbetween the phalanges are called?
Interphalangeal joints
What is the pubic symphysis?
A fibrocartilage disc in the anterior portion of the pelvis
What three bones fuse in adulthood to form the hip bone?
the ilium, the ischium and the pubis
What two major markings does the hip bone contain?
the obturator foramen and the acetabulum
What is the longest, heaviest and strongest bone in the body?
The femur
What is the largest sesamoid bone in the body?
the patella
What is the tendon superior to the patella called?
The quadriceps tendon
What is the tendon inferior to the patella called?
the patellar tendon
A degeneration of the hyaline cartilage on the patellar articular facets, causing a bone-on-bone grinding in the patellofemoral joint is called?
Chondromalacia Patella
When the patella begins to glided laterally as well as superoinferiorly, causing increased pressure on the joints and stress on the quadriceps and patellar tendons it is called?
Runner's Knee (Patello-Femoral Stress Syndrome)
Which tarsal bone makes the ankle joint?
the talus
What three functions do the arches of the foot have?
Support the weight of the body, provide ideal distribution of body weight over the hard and soft tissue of the foot, and provide leverage while walking
What are the two arches of the foot?
The longitudinal arch and the transverse arch
What are the differences between the male and female pelves?
The female pelves are less massive, and smoother, tiltled forward. It is in general shallower and wider with a more moveable cocyx. With a more oval shaped pelvic inlet compared to the heart-shaped male's and has a pubic arch of 100 degrees or more compared to the 90 degree male arch.
How many named bones does an adult human skeleton have?
What does articulate mean?
To form a joint with
What are the two principle divisions of the adult skeleton?
The axial skeleton (down the center) and the appendicular skeleton (the periphery)
How many bones are in the skull?
The cranial bones that form the cranial cavity to protect the brain consist of what?
1 frontal bone, 2 parietal bones, 2 temporal bones, i occipital bone, 1 ethmoid bone and 1 sphenoid bone
The facial bones that form the face consist of what?
2 nasal, 2 maxillae, 2 zygomatic, mandible, 2 lacrimal, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae, and the vomer
The skull is held together by immovable joints called:
What are the meninges?
The inner surface of the skull provides attachment sites for membranes called meninges, what is its function?
It stabilizes the position of the brain, blood vessels and nerves
What functions do the facial bones have?
Form the shape of the face, provide protection and support for the entrances to the digestive and respiratory systems, the senses
What is the function of the external auditory meatus?
allows for the ear canal to conduct sounds waves into the skull
The foramen ovale is the hole for what nerve?
The mandibular nerve
The foramen lacerum is the hole for what?
the internal carotid artery
The foramen magnum is the whole for what?
the brainstem to pass into the spinal canal
What is the function of the superior and inferior nuchal lines?
They provide muscle attachment for the muscles of the neck.
What is the purpose of the foramen spinosum?
It is the hole for the middle meningeal artery.
What is the function of the sella turcica?
it provides protection for the pituitary gland
What is a cleft palate?
Failure of the maxillary bones to unite before birth
What is the largest, strongest facial bone?
The mandible.
What is the only moveable skull bone?
the mandible.
What are the four sutures in the skull?
coronal, sagittal, lambdoid, squamous
What are fontanelles?
Areas of the embyronic and newborn skull of fibrous tissue, that will eventually be replaced by bone after birth.
What is the function of fontanelles?
To provide flexibility of the skull to ease childbirth.
What is the only bone in the body that does not articulate with another bone?
the hyoid bone
What is the function of the hyoid bone?
To provide attachments for tongue, neck and pharyngeal muscles.
How many vertebrae are there during early development? During adulthood?
33 during development, 26 during adulthood.
What are the moveable segments of the spine?
The cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
What is the purpose of the S-shaped curve of the vertebral column?
It is designed for weight-bearing, and increase strength, maintain upright balance, absorb shock and protect the vertebrae.
The concave curve (bulging toward the posterior) of the thoracic and sacral spine is called?
The convex curve (bulging toward the anterior) of the cervical and lumbar spine is called?
The vertebral arch consists of:
the laminae, pedicles, and spinous process
The transverse foramen of the cervical vertebra allow for passage of what?
the vertebral artery from the aorta to the brainstem area
Which is stronger, thoracic or cervical vertebrae?
thoracic vertebrae
The spinous processes of cervical vertebrae C2-C6 being split in two is called:
The bifid spinous process
What are the five vertebral sections beginning from the top?
Cervical, Thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, cocyx
The prominence of the cheeks of the face is formed by what bone?
The nucleus pulposis is part of what?
an intervertebral disc
What contributes to a hard palate?
the maxilla and palatine
The odontoid process is present in the atlas or the axis?
C2 or axis
The vertebral canal surrounds what?
the spinal cord
Where is the manubrium found?
the sternum
Demi-facets are found where? And have what purpose?
Found on the thoracic vertebrae and articulate with the ribs
The zygomatic process is a marking found on the temporal bone. True or False?
What is the meniscus?
A fibrocartilage disc
The joint between the epiphysis and the metaphysis of a growing child's femoral head is what kind of joint?
What is closing the mouth also known as?
Elevation of the mandible
The capitulum is on what bone?
The tip of the ring finger is also known as:
distal phalanx of the 4th digit
The zygomatic has a styloid process. True or False?
Identify Joint #3

facet joints of the vertebrae
# 16
coronal joint
squamosal joint
lambdoidal joint
costovertebral joint
joint #9
joint #11
IVD joints
joint #6
joint #19
joint #20
joint #7
joint #11
IVD joints
joint #32
joint #12
joint #22
elbow (olecranon and trochlea)
joint #23
proximal radioulnar
joint #34
joint #24
distal radioulnar
joint #25
joint #32
joint #33
pubic symphysis
joint #34
joint #35
lateral tibio-femoral
joint #36
medial tibiofemoral
joint #37
joint #38
proximal tibiofibular
joint #39
distal tibiofibular
joint #40
Joint #24
distal radioulnar
joint #25
joint #26
joint #27
joint #28
joint #29
proximal interphalangeal
joint #30
distal interphalangeal
Joint #31
1st interphalangeal
Joint #1
joint #2
joint #20
joint #21
joint #8
joint #9
joint #12
joint #13
joint #32
joint #34
Joint #5
lateral collateral ligament (LCL)
joint #3
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
joint #6
medial collateral ligament (MCL)
Joint #7
medial meniscus
joint #8
lateral meniscus
joint #1
Medial femoral condyle
joint #2
lateral femoral condyle
joint #3
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
joint #4
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
joint #7
medial meniscus
joint #8
lateral meniscus
joint #41
joint #42
joint #43
joint #44
proximal interphalangeal
joint #45
distal interphalangeal
joint #46
1st interphalangeal
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