BIO Lab E2- famialize with brain Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ganglia
Neurons outside CNS
Gray Matter
Neurons in the CNS
White Matter
Region of Spinal Cord containing Myelinated axons
Multipolar
Neurons with 3 or more processes
most common
major neuron of cns
 
Mostly Interneurons
Some Motor Neurons
Bipolar
Neurons with 2 or more processes
Sensory Neurons- special senses
Unipolar
 
One process
Primary sensory neurons in Dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord, sensory ganglia of cranial nerves
spinal nerves
how many pairs
what do they enter/ how?
what happens after
spinal nerves
31 pairs
enter intervertebral foramina then split to dorsal and ventral roots
cranial nerves
pairs?
12 pairs
 
 
fasicles
bundles of nerve fibers that you'd see in a slide of nervous tissue
perineurium
thin layer of CT around Fasicle
epineurium
Much thicker fibrous sheath that encloses fasicle and perineurium
Dura Matter
brain's outermost surrounding ct
Arachnoid Matter
middle tissue layer of CT on brain. Fine sheet across grooves
Pia Matter
innermost layer directly on brain, closely adheres to the brain's surface
Subarachnoid Space
space between arachnoid and pia matter filled with cebrospinal fluid
Four main regions of brain
cerebrum
diencephalon
brain stem
cerebellum
Ventricles
4 chambers of brain lined with ependymal cells that make cebrospinal fluid.
Septum Pellucidum
thin membrane that separates the lateral ventricles
3rd ventricle
diencephalon- longitudinal slit below choroid plexus
4th ventricle
between brain stem and cerebellum, connects with central canal of spinal cord inferiorly. and with the 3rd ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct from the midbrain
Cerebrum
has hemisphers seperated by longitudinal fissure, connected by corpus callosum
 
Processes Thought
 
cortical gray matter- total brain integration and intellectual and emotional processing
 
basal cell nuclei (ganglia)- subcortical motor center that initiates skeletal muscle movements
gyri
cerebrum- elevated ridges of tissue, wrinkles give more SA helping with brain efficiency
Sulci
cerebrum- grooves which separate Gyri divide hemispheres into lobes
Corpus Callosum
cerebrum- thin transverse band of white fibers myelinated axons that carry info between two hemispheres
olfactory bulbs
cerebrum- two enlargements that project from the anteroventral portion of the cerebrum, they lie over the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
olfactory nerve
cerebrum- cranial nerve 1- neurons lying in olfactory epithelium of upper nasal cavity that receive smell stimuli.
 
Purely Sensory
olfactory tract
cerebrum- two that extend at an angle caudally and laterally from each bulb
Fornix
cerebrum- bundle of white axon fibers at base of brain, posterior to septum pellucidum used for communication between the two hippocampi, the thalamus, and the mamillary bodies
Anterior Commissure
cerebrum- section posterior fornix composed of small, round bundle of fibers connected from the fornix for olfactory decussation.
Diencephalon
regions
functions from 2 things
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
 
Thalamic Nuclei- sensory impulses to cerebral cortex
impulses to and from cerebral motor complex.
 
hypothalamus- chief integration center of ANS.
Epithalamus
what does it contain 3
Diencephalon
Dorsal most part of diencephalon
choroid plexus, third ventricle, pineal gland.
 
produces spinal fluid, secretes melanin which helps sleep/wake cycle and mood.
Choroid Plexus
Diencephalon- Epithalamus- its ependymal cells produce CSF
Third Ventricle
Diencephalon- epithalamus- longitudinal slit immediately below choroid plexus.
Pineal Gland
Diencephalon- epithalamus- at posterior end of epithalamus
 
endocrine gland that secretes melanin
helps sleep/ wake mood
Hypothalamus
Diencephalon-
ventral surface of diencephalon, lies above pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is attached to the Infundibulum
 
homeostatic regulation of internal environment.
 
contains optic nerve, optic chiasma, mamillary body
Optic Nerve
Diencephalon- Hypothalamus- Cranial Nerve 2- retina to brain,
 
purely sensory
Optic Chiasma
Diencephalon- hypothalamus-
 
prominent, anterior border of hypothalamus. The rest of the hypothalamus lies posterior to optic chiasma
Mamillary Body
Diencephalon- Hypothalamus- Caudal End of hypothalamus
 
olfactory relay station
thalamus
Diencephalon-
- most mass of diencephalon
- right and left lobes connected by intermediate mass
 
its the brains relay station of ascending sensory information
 
contains intermediate mass, nuclui, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, and medial geniculate body
Intermediate Mass
Diencephalon- Thalamus- connects right and left thalamus lobes
Optic Tract
Diencephalon- Thalamus- leads from optic chiasma to lateral geniculate body.
lateral geniculate body
Diencephalon- Thalamus- enlargement of thalamus
find it by tracing optic tract beneath the cerebral hemisphere
its a white ridgelike structure on lateral side of thalamus
 
visual relay station
Medial Geniculate Body
Diencephalon- Thalamus
Small enlargement posterior and inferior to lateral geniculate body.
 
auditory relay center
Brain Stem
structures within it
functions from what 3 structures?
Brain Stem contains
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
 
midbrain- conduction between higher and lower brain centers. visual and auditory reflex centers
 
pons-respiratory control
 
medulla oblongata- decussation site of pyramidal tracts.
Controls many ANS things
 
Midbrain
aka?
 
contains?
Brain Stem-
aka mescephalon
dorsal surface can be seen by separating cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum
- roof has 4 prominent swellings
 
visual and auditory reflex centers are here.
 
contains corpora quadrigemia, superior and inferior colliculi, trochlear nerve, cerebral aqueduct, cerebral peduncle, and oculomotor nerve
Corpora Quadrigemia-
Brain Stem- Midbrain
4 prominent swellings on roof of midbrain
 
1st/2nd swelling- Superior Colliculi, larger anterior swelings
 
3rd/4th inferior colliculi, smaller inferior
 
contains trochlear nerve
Superior Colliculi
Brain Stem- midbrain-
2 larger anterior superior swellings on midbrain roof.
 
coordinate head/eye movements
Inferior Colliculi
Brain Stem- midbrain
 
3rd/4th smaller posterior swellings on midbrain roof.
 
auditory relay stations
Trochlear Nerve
 
Brain Stem- midbrain- cranial nerve 4
slightly posterior to inferior colliculi
 
mixed nerve with one extrinsic eye muscle
Cerebral Peduncle
Brain Stem- midbrain
ventrolateral surface of midbrain
posterior to mamillary body of hypothalamus
contains corticospinal tracts descending to spinal cord
 
contains oculomotor nerves
Oculomotor Nerves
Brain Stem- midbrain- cranial nerve 3
 
from surface of cerebral peduncle
mixed nerve for 4 of 6 extrinsic eye muscles
-iris for pupil constriction
Cerebral Aqueduct
Brain stem- midbrain
 
The cerebral aqueduct is a narrow opening in the brain that connects the third ventricle with the fourth ventricle, allowing cerebrospinal fluid to flow between these two areas.
Pons
Contains
brainstem
superior to medulla oblongata, inferior to midbrain, ventral to cerebellum.
 
 contains 2 fiber tracts, transverse and trapezoid body
 
involuntary breathing regulation
Transverse Fibers
Brain Stem- Pons-
connect the two hemispheres of the cerebellum via cerebral peduncles
Trigeminal Nerve
Brain Stem- Pons- Cranial nerve 5
extends across base of middle cerebral peduncle
will be cut short in lab, but will still have wide diameter
 
its a mixed nerve, afferent Head & Face.
Trapezoid body
brain stem- pons- 
narrower fibers that run posterior to transverse fibers
run longitudinally forming ascending/ descending tracts.
 
also contain abducens nerve 
Abducens Nerve
brain stem- pons
cranial nerve 6-
 
mixed nerve 1 eye muscle
 
arises from trapezoid body slightly lateral to midventral line.
 
Medulla Oblongata
brain stem- medulla oblongata
 
lower half of brainstem
 
contains fourth ventricle w/ medullary velum, ventral median fissure, pyramid, olive
 
contains cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers. its deals with ANS functions like breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
 
also it contains cranial nerves 7-12
 
all ascending/ descending pathways pass through medulla
fourth ventricle
brain stem- medulla-
 
extends from cerebral aqueduct to the obex, filled with CSF
 
It has a diamond shape
Medullary Velum
brain stem- medulla
- forms anterior 4th ventricle roof
 
Ventral Median Fissure
brain stem- medulla
midventral groove
Pyramids
brain stem- medulla
longitudinal tissue bands on sides of ventral median fissure. comprised of corticospinal tracts (pyramidal system)-
 
efferent motor signals- motor cortex to gray matter
Olives
Brain Stem- medulla
oval swellings lateral to pyramids and posterior to trapezoid body
-Afferent, relay info from spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and brain stem to cerebellum
Cerebellum
- has appearance of separate structure attached to bottom of brain beneath cerebral hemispheres.
 
- fine movement
 
contains hemispheres, vermis
arbor vitae
anterior superior cerebellar peduncle
middle peduncle
posterior peduncle
Vermis
cerebellum- segmented worm like groove that separates the two cerebellar hemispheres
Cerebellar Peduncles
cerebellum- 3 prominent fiber tracts that connect cerebellum to other brain regions
 
middle, posterior, and anterior peduncle.
Middle Cerebellar peduncle
cerebellum
 
connects cerebellum to pons
posterior cerebellar peduncle
cerebellum
connects cerebellum to spinal cord/ brain stem
 
anterior peduncle
 
cerebellum
cerebellum - midbrain
arbor vitae
cerebellum
Cerebellar white matter that has appearance of a tree
 
brings sensory info to and from cerebellum.
Cranial Nerve 1
olfactory
sensory
smell
cerebrum/ olfactory bulbs
cranial nerve 2
optic
sensory nerve
vision
diencephalon/ hypothalamus
cranial nerve 3
oculomotor
mixed
4/6 extrinsic eye muscles
mostly motor
brain stem/ cerebral peduncle
cranial nerve 4
Trochlear
mixed
1/6 eye
brain stem/ corpora quadrigemina
cranial nerve 5
trigeminal
mixed
head/face/ proprioceptive
pons/ transverse fibers
cranial nerve 6
abducens
mixed
primarily motor 1/6 eye
pons/ trapezoid
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