ch 10 the axial muscular system Flashcards

Vertebra
Terms Definitions
axial muscular system
-origin: insertion: action
-involved in movements of the head and spinal -column
-insertion end is usually distal
-insertion moves toward origin
-insertion is the end that moves
muscles of facial expression
O:the surface of the skull
I: within the dermis of the skin
A: cause the skin to move 
 
Orbicularis oris
facial expression muscle
O-maxilla and mandible
I- lips
A- constricts the opening of the mouth
 
kissing muscles
 
 
 
buccinator
facial expression muscle
O-alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible
I-obicularis oris
A- compresses cheeks (sucking)
 
fish face
            
 
           Zygomaticus (major & minor)
 facial expression muscle
O-Zygomatic bone
I- angle of mouth and upper lip
A- retracts and elevates corner of mouth
 
smile
 
 
Levator labii superioris
 facial expression muscle
elevates upper lip
labii-lips    levator-elevate
       
 
               Depressor labii inferioris
facial expression muscle 
depresses lower lip 
 
 
Platysma
 facial expression muscle
tenses skin of neck and depresses mandible
hulk

big broad muscle 
 
 
muscles of scalp
-epicranium=scalp
- all insert on aponeurosis(top/ball of head)
•Occipitofrontalis 
      –Frontal belly - raises eyebrows 
      –Occipital belly -  tenses and retracts scalp
•Temporoparietals – moves auricle of ear
Muscles of mastication
-chewing
-move mandible and TMJ
*includes orbicularis oris and buccinator
             

                       Masseter
-chewing/mastification muscle
-big huge muscles on cheeks
O•zygomatic arch
I •lateral surface and angle of mandibular ramus
A•elevates mandible and closes jaw 
 
 
Temporalis
-chewing/mastification muscle
 
O-temporal lines of the skull
I- coronoid process of mandible
A- elevates mandible
                  Pterygoids
-chewing/mastification muscle
-group of muscles
-Actions include
   elevate, protract, and slide side-to-side the mandible
 
 
Muscles of the Tounge
glossus means tounge
-genioglossus
-hyoglossus
-styloglossus
-palatoglossus
 
 
Genioglossus
-muscle of the tongue
-O-medial surface of mandible near CHIN
-I-body of TONGUE and HYOID
-A-depresses and PROtracts tongue
*genio-chin
 
 
hyoglossus
-muscle of the tongue
-O-Hyoid bone
-I-side of tongue
-A-depresses and REtracts
 
 
styloglossus
-muscle of tongue
-O-STYLOID PROCESS of TEMPORAL BONE
-I-lateral side of TONGUE
-A-elevates and retracts
 
 
Palatoglossus
-muscle of tongue
-O-anterior surface of soft palate
-I-side of tongue
-A-elevates and depresses soft palate
Muscles of Pharynx
-important for swallowing
muscles of eye
oculi=eye
-Orbicularis oculi
  O:orbit
   I:skin around eye lids
  A:closes eyes
*allows us to blink
-Oculomotor
  O:orbital surface
  I:various surfaces of the eye
  A:moves eye position
 
 
digastric
-muscle of the neck
-digastric- 2 bellies
    anterior:depresses mandible
    Posterior: depresses mandible
 
 
mylohyoid
O:mylohyoid of mandible
I:hyoid bone
A:elevates floor of mouth
 
muscles of neck
 
 
sternohyoid
O:clavicle and manubrium
I: hyoid bone
A: depresses hyoid bone and larynx
 
*don't follow rule of origin being proximal to insertion
 
 
stylohyoid
O:styloid process of temporal bone;
I: hyoid bone;
A: raise hyoid bone 
 
 
sternocleidomastoid
O:sternum or clavicle;
I:mastoid process and lateral portion of nuchal line;
A:flex the neck, bend neck toward shoulder and face to opposite side
 
cleido-clavical
1 in humans, 2 in cat
Muscles of the Vertebral Column
-occur in 3 different layers
1. superficial layer, moves the neck
2.intermediate layer
3. deep layer
superficial layer of vert. column
 
-moves the neck
•Trapezius and latissimus dorsi move the pectoral girdle upper limb
•Splenius muscles (splenius capitus=head and splenius cervicis)
O-spinous processes of vertebrae;
I- mastoid process, occipital bone, and atlas;
A- extend the neck together, rotates and laterally flexes neck separate
       *insertion above origin-opposite from others
 
Intermediate layer of vert. column
-extends the vertebral column
-erector spinae muscles originate on spinal
      column
-name implies insertion point (origin below
      insertion)
-Includes Spinalis, Logissimus, and Erector
      spinae
Intermediate layer of vert. column
SPINALIS
-originate on spinous process of vertebrae
-very middle muscles
-includes:
 –Spinalis cervicis -  extends neck 
                               -superior to thoracis
  –Spinalis thoracis -  extends vertebral column 
   Intermediate layer of vert.
                column
           LONGISSIMUS
-originate on transverse process of vertebrae
--–Longissimus capitus - extend neck, rotate and lateral
      flexion of neck 
---–Longissimus cervicis - same as above 
---–Longissimus thoracis - extension of vertebral column
      and lateral flexion 
Intermediate layer of vert.
                column
       ERECTOR SPINAE
    
-allow body to stand upright
-includes Iliocostalis muscles-originate on superior border of ribs
    –Iliocostalis cervicis - extends or laterally flexes neck and elevates ribs 
      –Iliocostalis thoracis - stabilizes thoracic vertebrae in extension 
  *2 above have origin on ribs
     –Iliocostalis lumborum
         O- iliac crest, sacral crests and lumbar spinous processes;
         I - inferior surfaces of  ribs 6 - 12;
         A- extends vertebral column and depresses (elevates) ribs
Deep layer of vert. column
-connect vertebrae together and stabalize
-semispinalis
-multifidus
-rotatores
-interspinales
-intertransversarii
deep layer of vertebral column
 
Semispinalis, rotatores, multifidus
semispinalis
O:transverse processes
I:spinous processes
 
  -–Capitus - extends the neck, laterally flexes neck and turns head 
   –Cervicis - extends vertebral column and rotates vertebrae 
     --Thoracis - same as above
Rotatores (cervicis, thoracis, and lumborum) -  same as above 
Multifidus – (origin sacrum and transverse processes of each
                  vertebrae); same as above 
    
      deep layer of vertebral column
                   Multifidus   
(origin sacrum and transverse processes of each vertebrae); same as above 
deep layer of vert. column
 
INTERSPINALES &
INTERTRANSVERSARII
•Interspinales -  extends vertebral column 
•Intertransversarii - lateral flexion(bend side to side) of vertebral column 

*both hold vertebrae together
deep layer of vert. column
 
spinal flexors
-flex vertebrae and neck (bend forward)
-majority of muscles of the vertebral column are
     extensors
 •Longus capitis - flex the neck and rotate the head 
•Longus colli - flexes and rotates neck and limits hyperextension 
•Quadratus lumborum - depress ribs, produce lateral flexion, and stabilizes floating ribs (11 and12) during forced exhalation
 
 
OBLIQUE and RECTUS MUSCLES
-muscles that lie between the vertebral column and ventral midline
•oblique muscles compress the underlying structures or rotate the vertebral column
•oblique are the things that "point where u need to go" and on sides of neck that make you look goofy...
-IN cervical region:Scalene Muscles
elevate ribs(heavy inhalation), flex neck, rotate head/neck
 
 
OBLIQUE MUSCLES IN THORACIC REGION
INTERCOSTAL
–important for respiratory movements regarding the ribs
»External - elevate ribs (inhale)
»Internal -  depresses ribs (exhale)

ONLY USED IN NORMAL INHALATION
 
OBLIQUE MUSCLES IN THORACIC REGION
 
      TRANSVERSUS AND SERRATUS
–Transversus thoracis (innermost layer) - depresses ribs (lines
         inner of ribs) (fibers prpendicular to body)
–Serratus posterior
»Superior (right below cervical region)-  elevates ribs to
       enlarge thoracic cavity 
»Inferior - pulls ribs inferiorly and out to oppose action of
                diaphragm (depresses ribs) (in lumbar region)
oblique muscles in abdominal region
–External oblique - compress abdomen, depress ribs, flexes laterally, and rotates vertebral column 
–Internal oblique - same as above 
--Transversus abdominis -  compress abdomen
             trans. is DEEPEST
 
RECTUS MUSCLES
-important flexors of the vertebral column and acting in opposition to the erector spinae
*Diaphgram(thoracic regon)
O:xiphoid process, ribs 7 - 12, and anterior surface of lumbar vertebrae;
I: central tendinous sheet;
A: expands thoracic cavity 
*Rectus abdominis (abdominal region)  - (rectus=runnin parallel)
O:superior surface of pubis;
I: inferior cartilage of ribs 5 - 7 and xiphoid process;
A:depresses ribs, flexes vertebral column, and compresses abdomen 
»Linea alba - collagenous longitudinally divides rectus abdominis 
»Tendinous inscriptions - fibrous tissue that divides the abdominis into 8 transverse sections
 
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