Chaper 9 Nervous System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What are the 3 types of neurons?
1. sensory/afferent
2. motor/efferent
3. interneurons
What transmit impulses to the brain and spinal cord?
sensory neurons/afferent neurons
A nerve impulse can also be called an?
Action Potential
A nerve impulse must be initiated by a?
Stimulus
What is white matter?
Myelinated
What is gray matter?
Unmyelinated
The brain and spinal cord belong to what division of the nervous system?
CNS
This type of cell does NOT transmit impulses within the nervous system, but are supporting cells.
Glia
Neurotransmitters are released at the ________.
Synapse
Why does a neuron at rest have more of a positive charge on the OUTSIDE of the cell membrane?
More sodium on the outside of the cell.
What is an effector? How does it relate to a nervous impulse?
An effector is the site where we see actions because of an impulse; neurotransmitter change at effector site.
What is depolarization?
Nerve impulse;Action Potential
What is taking place in the neuron during depolarization?
Movement of electricity through Schwann Cells; Sodium moving in.
What is the importance of a neurotransmitter?
Chemical that allows neurons to communicate.
What is a neurotransmitter?
Chemicals by which neurons communicate.
Explain what steps occur once an action potential reaches a synapse....
1. Neurotransmitter released across snynaps.
2. Neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on post synaptic neuron.
The autonomic nervous system consists of motor neurons that conduct impulses to what kinds of tissues?
Cardiac
Smooth
Glandular
These autonomic neurons conduct impulses between the spinal and a ganglion.....
Preganglionic
These autonomic neurons conduct impulses from a ganglion to an effector site....
Postganglionic
The sympathetic preganglionic neurotransmitter is?
ACH (acetylcholine)
The sympathetic postganglionic neurotransmitter is?
Epi /Nor Epi
The parasympathetic preganglionic neurotransmitter is?
ACH (acetylcholine)
What are the 2 main divisions of the ANS?
1. parasympathetic (normal response)
2. sympathetic (stress)
________ is the name of the nervous system division that includes the nerves that extend to the outlying parts of the body.
PNS
A self-propogating wave of electrical disturbances that travels along the surface of a neuron's plasma membrane is?
Nerve Impulse
What produces myelin in the PNS?
Schwann Cells
What produces myelin in CNS?
Oligodendcyte
Trauma to the CNS is damage to the ______.
Brain and Spinal Cord
The gaps between myelin segments along an axon are called?
Nodes of Ranvier
Neurons located within the CNS are called?
Interneurons
Neuroglia that increase in number during an infection of the CNS are?
Microgia
Compared to the inside, the outside of the cell membrane of a neuron that is depolarized would be?
Negative
After action potential the cell membrane is restored to rest by _____ moving back out and _____ moving in.  This is called repolarization.
Sodium out;potassium in
The region of communication between 2 neurons is the _______.
Synapse
A neurotransmitter that slows or stops an effector is referred to as an _____.
Inhibitory
What is the predominate neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system?
ACH(acetylcholine)
Cholinergic fibers release what neurotransmitter?
ACH (acetylcholine)
Adrenergic fibers function with what division of the nervous system?
Sympathetic
Our pupils dilate, our stomach motility decreases, our heartbeat speeds up and our bronchioles dilate.  These responses are produced with what division of the nervous system?
Sympathetic Nervous System
Identify 3 major parts to a neuron and their functions.
Cell body - integrates information d
Dendrites - brings into cell body
Axon- takes impulse away
The movement of Na and K is classified as what type of transport?
Sodium Potassium Pump, Active
Afferent is synonymous with what type of neuron?
Sensory Neuron
Efferent is synonymous with what type of neuron?
Motor Neuron
What transmit impulses away from the brain and spinal cord?
Motor Neurons/Efferent Neurons
Glucose is an important nutrient in our body. The neurotransmitter Insulin helps us use glucose for energy. What organic molecule do we have to break down to get glucose molecules?
Monosacccharides
What functions as an emergency system?
Sympathetic
A nerve impulse must be initiated by?
Stimulus
Neurons
Conduct Impulses
Don't Regenerate
Glia
Support Cells
Do Not Conduct Impulses
Regenerate
Schwann Cells
Produce Myelin
Regenerate
Myelin
White, Fatty Substance
High Speed
Tumor
Glia out of control
Action Potential
Nerve Impulse
Nervous System
Regulates body through electrical impulses
CNS
Brain and Spinal Cord
PNS
Autonomic
Somatic (voluntary)
 
Parts of Autonomic
Parasympathetic (normal)
Sympathetic (stress, fight or flight)
Motor Neuron
Away from brain or CNS
Sensory Neuron
Toward brain or CNS
Astrocytes
Hold blood supply to neurons
Oligodencites
Produce myelin in CNS
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