French Revolution 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Second estate
National Assembly
the draft
How many?
Social classes
general will
what majority desires
Bankers, Doctors, Merchants, etc
shop keepers, artisans, etc.
dissenting groups of people
Clichy Club
Center of the royalists.
was the Napolenic empire successful?
continental system
to destryo british economy
Three Estates
Church, Nobles, Third Estate
notebooks of grievances and solutions
A revolutionary political club that supported the sans-culottes and tried to advance the idea of a republic
palace where king and queen lived
one person has all the power
Upper Clergy
clerical & nobility, registered births/marriages/deaths, collected tithe, operated schools & hospitals
Absolute Monarch
~ 1775-1793
~ruler had complete control of government and the lives of the people
French Society Divided
-Ancient Regime (old order)
-3 social divisions...
First Estate (less than 1% of pop.)
-rich and privileged
-paid no direct tax
- owned vast land
Second Estate (less than 2% of pop.)
-held top gov't positions
-unhappy with monarch
-paid no taxes
Third Estate (97% of pop.)
-middle class and peasants
-burdened by heavy taxes (most could only afford to buy bread)
parisian workers that wanted greater changes to france, wore shorts
People, mainly aristocrats, who fled from France during the revolution. Many émigrés joined foreign opponents of the Revolution.
self employed and middle beurgoasie
-limits on power of king and church
- economic reforms including price controls on bread for the poor
When did the Estates General open?
undecided between the Jacobins and the Girondists
National Convention
The members of the Legislative Assembly disbanded the idea of a limited monarchy and decided to dissolve their assembly and called for a new election which led to the new governing body the National Convention.
pay a tenth of one's income, especially to the church
the lower class, 90% of the population
Who enforced legitimacy
congress of vienna enforced it
In general, the middle class. Applied to the Middle Ages, it refers to townspeople, who were neither nobles nor peasants. In Marxism it refers to those who control the means of production and do not live directly by the sale of their labor.
Civil Code
most important of Napoleon's legal codes
The area of responsibility of a government official, for example, deffence, the budget.
people who wanted to make extreme changes
a notebook of grievances prepared by the Estates
Estates General
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France. Its calling was the catalyst for revolution, bringing to a head resentment between the poor and the privileged classes. It hadn't been called for 175 years. Voting was by estate, rather than by number of deputies.
coup d'etat
"stroke of state"; the sudden overthrow of a government by force
called for an end to the bloodshed
president of the committee of public safety
an enlightment thinker who believed in a monarchy and thought that all people were cruel, selfish, and evil
fraction of army Napoleon loses in Moscow
Jacques Louis David
A leading artist who actively supported the French Revolution and painted events like the Tennis Court Oath and Napoleon's coronation.
National Guard
lead by Marquis de Lafayette, this army was formed after the Bastille to suppress revolutionaries
Napoleon held one of these on ever step up of power he had. It was a popular vote by ballot. This is why the people trusted him so much because they finally had some influence on government.
grand empire
the name of napoleon's empire which included france, dependent states and allied states
Nobles and others who had fled France and hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the Old Regime.
Dominated by the middle class, it was weak and dictatorial and faced growing discontent from the people of France
Republic of Virtue
democratic nation composed of behaved citizens, which the Committee of Public Safety tried to establish
An ornament worn on top of a hat.
Taxes were a certain amount of money that each citizine had to pay monthly and all of the money would go to the government.
Society of Thirty
aristocrats and clergy supporting the Third Estate
includes Lafayette, Talleyrand, Siéyès
deficit spending
spending more money than has been earned
Divine Right
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God. A belief that was held by Louis XVI and was responsible for his reluctance to accept limitations on his power.
a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and later became Emperor of the French. His reign marked the end of the French Revolution.
How much land did the rich nobles own
a group of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or an empress
Congresss of Vienna
diplomats and heads of state faced task of restoring stability and order to Europe here
all people had the right to vote, not just land owners
a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy.
Napolean was exiled to what country?
the island of helena.
Ancient Regime
~old order
~ system of gov't before revolution
Declaration of Rights of Man
-equality and freedom
-inspired by declaration of independence and enlightment
People who had voting priveleges
electors (individuals who were qualified to vote), owners/property worth certain amount
Louis XIV
died in 1715 leaving France with a huge debt after building Versailles
voting by head
allows all three estates to meet together and each representative has an individual vote.
What is the first group in the Third Estate
Seven Years War
the french were defeated by the british and lost many overseas posessions
Congress of Vienna
The diplomats and heads of state that face the task of restoring stability and order into Europe after years of war
Who had exemption from the Taille?(tax)
The first and second states.
a period during the government of the National Convention in which thousands suspected of opposing the Jacobin faced arrest and execution.
Reign of Terror
Napoleon new Bureaucracy
People are base on merit. Now more middle class (bourgeoisie)
Who were the Jacobins?
More radical group that seized power after the first moderate stage of the revolution. They supported govt control to help the economy.
What is the National Assembly
Sieves suggestion the Third Estate delegates pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people
The Reign of Terror
The time that the committee of Public Safety was in power, and was very violent. Over 40,000 people were killed as being seen as a threat or rebelling against the authority of the National Convention.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Issued in 1790, bishops and priests became elected, salaried officials. It ended papal authority over the French Church and dissolved convents and monasteries.
Policies towards Catholic Church
gov took land, clergy had to be elected
the partitioning of Poland
in 1791 a group of Polish nobles issued a new constitution creating an elective monarchy, giving the monarchy and his counsel real authority, establishing a bicameral legislature, and eliminating the liberum veto. the government also adopted a quality before the law and religious toleration. Frederick William II of Prussia defended the new constitution because he felt a stronger Poland was in Prussia's interest to balance growing Russian power. on April 1792 conservative Polish nobles, who opposed to the reforms invited Russia to restore the old order. Russian troops on the east, and Prussian troops on the west moved in however, they partitioned Poland, rather than protect it. Polish troops fought back and on one day 10,000 Poles were killed outside Warsaw.
what was the tennis court oath
revolt where members of the third estate protesetd on a tennis court for a new constitution
Which statement is a valid generalization about the immediate results of the French Revolution of 1789?
the French middle class gained more power
"vote by order or by head?"
should the votes be counted by social class or by how many people per representative
What were the main ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau?
Voltaire wanted to improve the mind.
Rousseau wanted to improve the heart.
a social contract, similar to the American Declaration of Independence, which stated the reasons for the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
What was the 3rd estate called and which people belonged to it?
The peasants, it consisted of the Bourgeoisie and peasants.
T h O m A s , P a I n E :)
*wrote pamphlet common sense.
thomas paine
Napoleon's Coup D´état
Importance of Waterloo
"Friend of the People"
government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch
radical sort of French revolutionary
General Lafayette
National Guard (peoples army)
Abolitionment of Feudalism
August 4, 1789
Revolutionary Tribunals
revolutionary tribunals were established during the summer of 1793, their mandate was to eradicate the enemies of the revolution. They systematized and channeled popular resentment and enforced their authority through the guillotine. Other modes of execution, including public shootings and drownings were used in the provinces. Marie Antoinette, members of the royal family, and other aristocrats, were among the first to be executed in October 1793. . They were followed by prominent Girondist politicians. in earnings 1794, the terror moved into the provinces were thousands of people were executed, one famous, infamous events was in Nantes on the west coast of France were several hundred people including many priests were tied to rats and drowned. . Victims even included the Sans-Culottes.
a shrewd lawyer and politician
petit blancs
artisans, merchants, teachers, wanted equality of citizenships for all whites, both whites opposed to blacks wanted to be included in "Rights of man"
cotton gin(eli Whitney) machine that seperated seds from cotton
economic, political, and social system in medieval Europe involving lords and peasants
July 14, 1789
Storming of the Bastille
represented the city of Paris. interests of radicals. 1793, have Louis killed.
General Estates
3 groups comprising the government
great britain
The country napoleon never defeated
a reference work organized according to the ideas of events
First Estate
Roman Catholic Clergy; 1% population; had privileges; didn't have to pay taxes
Pene Descartes
" I think, therefore I am"
divine right monarchy
king gets power from god
Which country did Louis XVI rule in?
small groups who compete to gain power
Complete control of the production or sale of a good or service by a single firm
second, poorest group within the Third Estate; included trades people, apprentices, laborers, and domestic servants; paid low wages and frequently out of work; attacked grain carts and bread shops to steal what they needed out of hunger
abolition of historic provinces with their
customary exemptions (such as pays d'état, provincial parlements)
83 departments established = RATIONALIZATION and CENTRALIZATION
of administrative process; each department approx. equal in size;
anti-feudal motivation, suppression of local noble control
Far Right
reactionaries/royalists - go back in time
Jean-Paul Marat
published a radical journal called Friend of the People
Rene Descartes
father of modern philosopher, father of analytical geometry.
Louis XVI
French King during France's 1787 revolution.
the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required
Great Fear
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants after the storming of the Bastille and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Estates System
French society was divided into 3 estates-Catholic Clergy, Nobility, and Commoners
Edict of Nantes
Granted religious and civil liberties to French Protestants by Henri IV
peninsular war
napoleon loast 300.00 men - between french and spanish
Old Regime
A combination of the absolute monarchy and feudalism in France; it included the three estates.
Constitution of Year VIII
Created the consulate; was "enlightened" with separation of powers and was a republic, but really it was a dictatorship.
Country Card
The Third Estate declared itself what in May of 1789.
A: National Assembly
Reign of Terror
The historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
bread riots
caused when people continued to see their children keel over dead from starvation
What's the significance of the Guillotine?
equality of death sentences
Napoleon and Russia
popular military leader; shaped up the French army but when he went into Russia, he was defeated. Came in with 400,000 men and left with 10,000. He wasn't prepared for the cold weather and brutality of the Russians.
committee of public safety
a committee established during the french revolution to identify enemies of the republican
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances devised by Metternich that ensured nations would help one another if any revolutions broke out
Decleration Rights of Man
-modeled after the Decleration of Independence, anounced men were born and remained free and had equal rights
National Assembly -
First new government during the first stage of the French Revolution
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Napoleonic Code
A civil code that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. equality before the law, religious toleration
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
The second revolution
The period of time in the French Revolution that saw a radicalization of the people. This phase began around the middle of 1792, when King Louis and Marie Antoinette were accused of treason. Then, they were stripped of all powers and a new National Convention were called for. The September Massacres shortly followed.
Tennis Court Oath
On June 20, 1789 after being locked out of their meeting place, the deputies of the National Assembly moved to a nearby indoor tennis court and swore that they would continue to meet until they had produced a French Constitution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)
committe of public safety
austria will attack france, but they wont...protect people
Constitution of 1791
All 3 estates have equal power in government, National Assembly becomes Legasliative Assembly, absolute monarchy is abolished, forcing the king to obey. Only land owners could hold public offices.
why was the napoleanic code important
it restricted the peoples freedoms, which was important because the people trusted him, even though eh was going behind their backs
The Revolution Begins
*They saw the Bastille as a symbol of everything that was wrong with France. It was a symbol of a King and Government.
Cahiers des doléances(lists of complaints)
When the Estates general's met in Versailles, they all showed each other their cashiers (or notebooks) of grievances (complaints)
What did the countries urge
France to restore Louis to his position as an absolute monarch
how long did it take to exile Napolean the first time?
it took one year.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
..., Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Night session of August 4th
It was the night where the Nobles in the National Assembly voted to end their own privileges, like not paying taxes
Why were the peasants alarmed by the Assembly's actions
Most citizens were devout Catholics, the effort to make the Church a part of the state offended them
Name two positives that the third estate said.
they wanted to remain loyal to Louis and the curch, and they respected the sanctity of private property
What happened to the governor of the Bastille?
Head cut off and put on a stick.
logical thought
to escape
14 July 1789
madame deficit
aka marie antoinette
how did robspierre die
an enlightment thinker who
Working class men and women
~rival group of Jacobins
~conservative half of Jacobins
~members of the professional class (lawyers and merchants) who wanted a constitutional governemnt
~aka Moderates
~produced the Constitution of 1795 which set up a 5 man Directory and a 2 house legislature elected by male citizens of property
~believed monarch has limited powers
~first to be targeted as the beginning of the Terror
~ wanted seperation of powers
~wanted a democratic revolution within and of patriotic defiance to the European powers without
Napoleon in 1802
Emperor Napoleon I
napoleons government. headed by 3 consuls.
Cahiers de doleances
statements of local grivances
human nature: naturally cruel and selfish
Belonging to or characteristic of Romanticism or the Romantic Movement in the arts.
Tennis court outh
made the National Assembly
"temple of reason". new calendar replacing christian calendar, 12 months, 4 tenday weeks eliminating sunday worship and christian holidays=FAIL
First Coalition
Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, Sardinia
September Massacres
The killing of suspected Counter-Revolutionaries in Paris Prisons by Pro-Revs
church, lived in great luxury in chateaux and palaces
Liberte, egalite, fraternite
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, the slogan of the French Revolution
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
admiral horatio nelson
British admiral; he defeated Napoleon's navy in Egypt and again at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
The island that Napolean was exiled to
Something one is forbidden to see/ hear
Saint Dominigue
tey demanded that the national assembly give them the same privileges as the people of france.
What role did the islands- Corsica, Elba, & St. Helena play in Napoleon's life?
Blue, Red (colors of Paris), White (Bourbon/Royal Family). Flag representing the revolutionaries of France who wanted a more democratic system of government.
another term for "classes" of people [the clergy (first estate), nobles (second estate), townspeople & peasants (third estate)]
favoritism shown to relatives by those in power
Was a succesful general, and than emerged as a strong leader.
third estate
made up of Bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers
Phase of Revolution: Conservative
Third phase of revolution; Dictatorship
people who want to return to an earlier political system
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
Great Awakening
The event that made the colonists socially different from the British.
What starts a war
P ower
E conomy
R eligion
L and
Social Desirability
giving the answer that is most socially acceptable
the woman standing in line to be executed with her two children,Napoleon is in love with her
Invasion of Russia
Napoleons army went to fight Russia but the conditions got to sever and Napoleon lft his troops in Russia, if you made it back you would survive
1st Estate
Rich Clergy and Bishops, 1% of the people
Marie Antoinette
Wife to Louis XVI who was especially known for her extravagance. Died under the blade of the guillotine in 1793.
Paris Commune
radical political group made up of the sans-culottes/ seized power from the legislative assembly
What does Bastille represent?
fortress/prison represents to them the king's opression
the Peninsular war (1808-1814)
-war that napoleon fought in spain
-Portugese refuse to join the continental system
-napoleon sends an invasion force through spain
-napoleon replaces spain's king
Jena Paul Marat
Jacobin writes the Friend of the People newspaper, assasinated
Code Napoleon
Civil code of laws; legal system of France
Equality of all men before the law
Trial by jury
Abolish slavery
Right of occupation
Merit- if you do a good job you can socially move up
Religious toleration
women subordinates to their husbands
parish priests
poor and from the the class of commoners, members of the first estate
Council of Ancients
Agrees to pass change in the constitution
Describe the first class.
wealthy, paid no taxes but could collect taxes (tithes), owned 15% of all land
King Louis XVI
The incompetent King of France who was be-headed for his lack of power as a ruler
balance of power
no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
Napoleon's Code of Laws
Gave country a uniform set of laws that elimeinated many injustices. Limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual right. Freedom of speech and of press restricted under code. Also restored slavery in french colonies.
What did the king do when they declared themselves to be the national assembly?
he locked them out
king attempts to flee
austria looms in and the war between france & austria begins; france will not let royal family escape
What were some ways that the National Assembly attempted to fix the inequalities that France experienced under the Old Regime?
Wrote a constitution (limited monarchy, legislative assembly), no more labor unions, no more special privileges, equality for the law, declaration of rights of man, nobles left, reforms in local gov, taxes based on ability to pay, church lands seized, clergy elected by people
What happened after the September Massacres
The Legislative ASsembly set aside the Constitution of 1791, declared teh king deposed, dissolved teh assembly and called for the election of a new legislation
Explain how the 3 estates met and voted for the estates General. Do you think it was fair? Why or why not?
The general-estate assembly and voting was not fair because a tiny sliver of the France population got their way, while the 98% rest of the population doesn't have any political power. A good quote for this is, "What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been up to now in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something herein." The third estate delegates were the National Assembly who passed laws and reforms in the name of the French people. They proclaimed the end of the absolute monarchy, and beginning of the representative government.
When does Napoleon die and where does he die?
In 1821 on St. Helens island
The Third Estate's two demands
1) voting by head, not by order;
2) "doubling the third"
calling of the council -the King allows gave in on doubling the Third- but made no decision about voting by head or by order.
Announced at opening of Estates General it will be by order
John Paul Marat was killed; why and where?(may not be actual question)
He was killed for his extremist views and by Charlotte Corday.
les émeutes
keen eagerness,consuming greed
book of complantes
Constitution of 1795
created directory
to give up power
-loves monarch but hates monarchy
-revolt against monarchy = :)
-encouraged ppl to revolt
restoring heriditary monaches their throne
a privileged class holding hereditary titles
Thermodorian Reaction
when Robspierre illustrated various "conspiracies", which alienated many members of his support, and he was tried and guillotined
French nobility escaping revolution - spreading terror abroad. Used aristocratic connections in Europe. Later, even MC and others left too. Bemoaned sad plight of king. Count of Artois led these emigres...
National Assmebly t=transformed the government into a ....
Constitutional monarchy
Napoleon and Italy
creted Cisapline
-no unification- could pose threat
a word or phrase for goals
something that draws public attention and criticism
Political faction stemming from the Jacobins; did not support Parisian military; did not want Louis XVI executed because they thought he would become a martyr.
third coalition
britain, netherlands, austria, russia, portugal, prussia
3rd estate
bourgeoisie, wage earners, and the peasantry
Social Causes
-Seperated into Three Estates (clergy, nobility and everyone else). Only peasants paid taxes
- San-Culottes favored equality and played a major role in the revolution
-social inequality is most fundamental cause of the revolution
Legislative Assembly
2nd Government try
Had separation of powers
king could still veto
members had to be elected
berlin decrees
issued by napoleon stating that neutral ships trading with Britain or obeying the orders in council could be seized
napoleon invades _____
-w/ 6000,000 men
-burned all cities leadinf to moscow
What did Montesquieu write?
Spirit of the Law
belief that human nature could be logically
explained using reason & the Scientific Method
Member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
who was the advisor to louis xiv?
Guerrilla Warfare
hit-and-run raids that distracted the French in Spain
The Mountains
Represented the interests of radicals in the city of Paris. Power base in Paris, main support form the sans-culottes, would adopt extreme measures to achieve the Revolution, and more centralized [in Paris] approach of government.
lettre de cachet
goverment could imprison anyone without naming charges or going to trail
The Directory
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
St. Helena
island of Napoleon's second exile and where he died
Jacques Necker
Financial expert of Louis XVI. He advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tariffs on internal trade, etc. Unfortunately, the First and Second Estates got him fired.
Great Terror
spreads all over the country. Kill people by the hundreds- arrested and executed the enemies of the revoultion without trial. special courts set up. New Revolutionary calendar created. June 1794- Robes. will terrorized the Committee of Public Safety. political trials all involve Robespierre. Cult of Supreme Being. Robespierre killed- reign of terror= over.
hundred days
the brief period during 1815 when napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and again becoming emperor of france
Mary Astell
Wrote A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, book addressed that lack of educational opprotunities for women; tried to improve the status of women
To bring back religion, Nepoleon signed an agreement with which Pope
Pope Pieus VII
one tenth of the annual produce of one's land or of one's annual income, paid as a tax or contribution to support a church or clergy
a situatoin in which the price of goods rises quickly
"Turn back time" Far Right. Bin Laden, Hitler, Charles I
The Bastille
Hated royal fortress and prison in Paris. Upon news that the king was amassing troops at Versailles, a large crowd stormed the prison on July 14th, 1789. They overran it, taking weapons. The date is celebrated annually.
Revolutionary Armies
Refers to the military of France during the period between the fall of the ancien regime under Louis XVI in 1792 and the formation of the First French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804. These armies were characterized by their revolutionary fervor.
Milan Decree
in 1807 which proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulation or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy was subject to seizure by France.
Napolean and Russia
Russia withdrew from the continental system, so he lead his "grand armee" into Russia, 5 weeks in he ordered a retreat. desomated Napoleon's army and he resigns the thrown
new world empire
napolean sells louisiana purchase to americans because he didn't want to anger them when both of their enemies were britain. napolean let go of haiti because all his men died from mosquitoes
Sans coulettes
names given to Parisian lower class men who wore long pants instead of coulettes.
Agreement between Napoleon and the Church; restoring the Church to its former position. In return, the Church gave up its claims to church property.
Condorcat of 1801
Women's March
women had trouble finding food so went to Versailles to bring the King back
Active citizen
a male who payed taxes that equaled three days of labor
Thermadorian Reaction
result of the Reign of Terror; in which the leaders of the French Revolution were killed and the COPS lost power
March on Versailles
Also called the 'Bread March of Women', it was due to bread shortages and increasingly high prices. In 1789 when rumors spread that nobles were hoarding bread, women joined together and stormed Versailles, blaming the situation on Marie Antoinette.
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon sign a concordat with Pope Pius VII. Government recognized the influence of church but rejected church control in national affairs. French government appoint bishops, bishops appoint parish priests.
old regime of France was made up of this and feudalism
scorched-earth policy
the policy used by the Russians in which Russian Soldiers would burn crops when being followed by Napoleon in order to starve the french troops
flight to varennes
austria and prussia were going to invade and "restore order"
Napoleon and Emigres
granted emigres amnesty but they were simply required to take an oath to the state.
Constitutional Monarchy
a gov't where the king supports the constitution, thus confining the king's power to its system of principles
law of suspects
Anyone who harms or intends to harm the revolution by thought, word or deed is prosecuted
Storming of the Bastille
Commoners stormed the prison doors for weapons to fight off the king's guards
Marie Antionette
married Louis XVI and was the Queen of France during the Reign of Terror. The pair tried to escape France in June 1791, during the Woman's march on Versailles, but were caught, arrested and brought back to Paris. They were then forced to live among the people who hated them most: the poor city folk whose hatred for her was fueled by the Queen's lavish lifestyle during the time they were starving. She was later convicted of treason and executed.
The Estate System/Old Regime
the social class system used in France
complaints from city workers
not everyone had jobs, half of paycheck goes to food, like in slums, had to deal with inflation of bread
Clemens von Metternich
Wanted to restore Europe to the way it was in 1792
The Reign of Terror (1793-1795)
A two year bloodbath where Maximilliem Robespierre and his followers killed everyone who was seen as a threat to them or the revolution. Anyone who seemed against the revolution at all was killed, many innocent people were killed. Some where between 10-14 thousand people where killed. After 2 years, Danton realized they need to stop the killings and said there had been to many killings AND because of that he was killed. In the end the Herbertist turned on their leader and shouting "Death to the Tyrant" brought Robesperrie to the Guillotine and killed him.
The Civil Constitution of the clergy
It transformed the Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state
Battle of the Nile
1798 - Napoleon's army is trapped in Egypt - Napoleon slipped away while British Admiral, Nelson, defeated French troops
This made the Roman Catholic Church a branch of the secular state. Clergy were paid for by the state and became its employees.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The Paris Commune of August 10, 1792
It was the city council, dominant force in the revolution, consisted of representatives of Paris's 48 sections.
IV. Signs Of the coming Reduction
- A. Estates General- Assembly of all three estates.- Members of 3rd estate Insisted they have a vote in the estates general- View of the Enlightment- Liberty- National Assembly- 3rd estate's group to pass laws and reforms
What did Maximilien Robespierre do during the Great Fear?
Since he was the head of the Committee of Public Safety, he could execute anyone that he considered a suspect and send them to the guillotine. By 1794 he would execute anyone who opposed him including friends.
why did napoleon flee back to france after he invaded egypt
the english navy was much stronger, he couldnt get resources
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