French Revolution 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
taille
tax
thomas hobbes
Leviathan
Clergy
the church.
estates-general
May 5, 1789
Problems in France
...
plebiscite
Popular vote of ballot
Waterloo
a final crushing defeat
moderates
had no extreme views
Olympe de Gouges
woman's rights journalist
bourgeoisie
educated, middle class of France
Battle of Trafalgar
Oct. 21, 1805
faction
a dissenting group of people
Directory
the corrupt government removed universal male suffrage and took away power from the poor
republic
government ruled by elected representatives insead of a monarch
Napoleonic Code
It embodied Enlightenment principles: equality of all citizens before the law, religous toleration, abolition of feudalism
French Empire
Napoleon code, give family,leadership roles, lousianna purchase.
Continental System
Continental system (Hist.), the blockade of Great Britain ordered by Napoleon by the decree of Berlin, Nov. 21, 1806; the object being to strike a blow at the maritime and commercial supremacy of Great Britain, by cutting her off from all intercourse with the continent of Europe.
Old Regime
socio-political system which existed in most of Europe during
the 18th Century
Bastille
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Maximillien Robespierre
member of National Convention. preached democracy and suffrave for all males. known as "The Incorruptible". anyone opposed to being governed by general should be executed. arrested and guillotined.
Bourgeouisie
Middle class of the third estate
metternich
believed in suppressing completely the ideas of freedom of speech, religion, and the press
aimed to prevent war
blockade
the isolating, closing off or surrounding of a place by hostile troops to prevent entrance or exit
National Assembly
French parliamentary body. The name was used first during the French Revolution to designate the revolutionary assembly formed by representatives of the Third Estate (1789) and then as a short form for the National Constituent Assembly (1789 - 91). It was used again when the National Assembly of 1871 - 75 drafted a new constitution.
guerrilla warfare
The Spanish camaign of hit-and-run raids against the French
peasants
farmers; paid 1/10 income to church; paid high rents and fees; were miserables, poor
Napoleon Bonaparte
Gained Control through a coupdetat -studden over throw of government
congress of vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by prince metternich, restore europe to prerevolution time
Russia
Ivan the Terrible ruled in what country?
émigrés
nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and its revolutionary forces
Bloc
A group of countries in special alliance
National Convention
Legislative branch that deposed the king of his title, declared france s republic
The Directory
5 directors, executive council. relied on ilitary to maintain power.
Louis XIV
Longest reign ever. Outlives everyone. Created Versailles, which is very decadent.
Baron De Montesquieu
french philosopher, seperation of powers
intendant
a government agent under the control of the king who collected taxes and administered justice; strengthened by Louis XIV at the expense of the power of the nobles
Reign of Terror
Massacre of 16,000-50,000 French citizens during the French Revolution.
Concert of Europe
Agreement between countries to back each other up if a country begins to revolt.
second estate
The second class of French society made up of the noblility
Thomas Paine
Author of Common Sense (an american pamphlet urging the colonists to goto war with Great Britain before the American Revolution)
Republic of Virtue
democratic nation composed of good, behaved citizens, which the Committee of Public Safety tried to establish
Battle of Waterloo
Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia defeat Napoleon during this battle; Napoleon is then exiled
Jacobins
The group in government that were on the left and wanted radical change
deficit spending
when a government spends more money than it takes in
Constitution
A document that sets out the major laws and principals of a government
they had how many estates were ther
3 estates
Estates General
the legislative branch of the French government prior to the French revolution: they could meet only with permission from the king (May 5th, 1789)
Country Card
This listed the basic human rights: liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression, freedom of religion, due process of law, and taxes by common consent; it was published in August 1789.
A: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
executive branch under napoleon
made up off three consuls
1798-1799
When did Bonaparte go into Egypt and Middle East?
Richelieu
true power behind Louis XIII, put in place by the Church
Committee of Public Safety
National Conention gave powers to ,acted to defend France from foreign and domestic threats
Jacques Necker
urges King Louis XVI to call Estates' General
first time in 175 years
Legislative Assembly
A French congress with a power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution.
Battle of Austerlitz
Britain's Navy defeats France off the southwest coast of Spain; two results 1. Ensured supremacy of British Navy for next 100 years; 2. Forced Napoleon to give up on invading Britain
Jean-Paul Marat
a strong jacobin called for the death of those who supported the king. died of skin disease
Scorched Earth Policy
as Russians fled, they burned the ground they retreated on so as to hurt the French
Moderate
A person who takes a position in the political center
Marie Antoinette
Unpopular Queen of France from 1774 to 1792, who was executed during the French Revolution
1789
When did the mob march from Paris to Versailles?
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French constitution patterned after the United States Constitution.
The Bastille
An armory and prison in Paris that was dismantled brick by brick by a mob of Parisians on July 14, 1789. (This event saved the National Assembly).
The first and second estates.
*Nobics bad almost complete control over presents.
*The third estates.
*Peasents.
Limited Constitution of France
what kind of constitution did france during the national assembly
Storming of the Bastille
July 14th, 1789. A group of Sans-culottes were in search of weapons and after going to Les Invalides were still short of gunpowder and cartridges so they marched to the Bastille. They were denied entry by governor, de Launay, and he refused to hand over gunpowder. There was no intention of storming the fortress but a group managed to enter the inner court. De Launay used his troops to open fire on them and 98 were killed. First and most famous of the journées. Significance: King lost control of Paris, The Assembly(now called the National Consistent Assembly) was prepared to draw up Constitution. Louis now had to share power with National Assembly
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Document issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system. Made elections for regional bishops.
what was the old regime
the different social classes of france before the revolution
we'll wring her neck
Let them eat cake - against Marie Antoinette brought
Storming of the Tuileries
In August, 1792 A crowd of people stormed the royal palace at Tuileries causing the king's family to flee to the Legislative Assembly, who imprisoned him and suspended his powers, August of 1792. While they were at his palace, they massacred the Swiss Guard.
Who were the Jacobins enemies
peasants who were horrified by the king's execution, priests who would not accept government control and rival leader who ere stirring up rebellion in the provinces
three major parts of the grand empire
1. French Empire (Inner Core)
2. Dependent States (Under the rule of Napoleon's relatives)
3.Allied states (Defeated and now fighting with him)
Civil Code of 1804 (Napoleonic Code)
A body of French civil laws introduced in 1804; they served as a model for many nations' civil codes.
What were the rules of the Estates-General
each estate's delegates met in a separate hall to vote, and each estate had one vote
What did other people in the third estate say when asked to draw up their grievances?
condemed the court as vampires and called for fairer taxes
What do the peasants in the country do?
attack the manors and tear up the records of the money they owe; attack bread deliveries going to paris
T h E f R e N c H r E v O l U t I o N :)
* peasants had no rights, food , and no money , and the king ruled absolutely everything.
Thermidorian Reaction
...
souhaiter
to wish
balayer
to sweep away
Tribunal
a hearing at court
What Sparked the Revolution?
...
nationalism
national spirit or aspirations
sans-culottes
ordinary patriots without fine clothes. Made up the Paris Commune which came after the Legislative Assembly.
Left, Right, and Center
Radicals-left wing
Moderate-centrist
Conservatives-right wing
Hundred Days
Napoleon escaped and ruled.
Nobility
members of the 2nd Estate
Latude
ex prisoner of Bastille. Writes "Memoirs of Vengence" to expose the horrors of Bastille.
Characteristics of the three estates of French society
...
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte
Ruler of France
Mountain
Represented the interests of the radicals in Paris; succeeded in getting Louis XVI put to death
Salon
The meeting of intellectuals to discuss exciting ideas
Turgot
A physiocrat who wanted economic reform by removing feudal dues and streamlining government expenses. He was questioned by the nobility and was fired after 18 months.
relics of feudalism
aristocratic privileges, were obligations that survived from an earlier age
What island was Nepoleon exiled to
Elba
guillotine
what they used to execute nobility
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher, theory of natural man, belief that man was not good or bad but product of civilation
enlightenment
an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society
Causes of revolution
inequalities in society, enlightenment ideas, financial crisis
Waterloo, Belgium
Place where combined British and Prussian forces defeated Napoleon in 1815.
Jacobin Club
large network of political groups throughout France; both Girondins and Mountain were members
Infrastructure
The basic facilities and services that support a community.
Robert Castleregh
reps. UK at congress of Vienna
Girondists
In control during the first part; wanted to stabilize with the death of the king. (Moderates)
September Massacres
Paris Commune killed about 1,200 prisoners because they believed they were counterrevolutionaries
Committee of Public
established during French Revolution to identify "enemies of the republic"
Leader of extreme radicals, Jacobin, assinated in his bath
Jean-Paul Marat
René descartes
believed human should doubt everything until it can be proven with reason
Revolution
a great change over short period of time
Effect of the Congress of Vienna
french revolution ended
Balance of Power
Distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong.
Absolute monarchy
a king or ruler w/ no restrictions
Tasks-The Revolution Begins
*Mob-a large crowd of rioting people
*Bastille-the royal fortress prison in Paris.
Paris Commune
In France, every mayor was appointed by the king to carry out his laws (no local government). However, Paris decided to elect their own mayor and to create their own town council, which was dominated by the bourgeoise. They create a militia that eventually becomes the National Guard
Holy Alliance
Signed by Czar Alexander I, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Frederick William of Prussia; pledged to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat forces of the revolution
Goals of the Revolution
equal taxation; less goverment corruption; less powerful Catholic church.
Mary Wollstonecraft
advocate of women's rights (ideas of freedom should apply to women and men)
Napolean's Grand Empire
consisted of the French Empire, dependend states, and allied states
French Empire (continued)
Louisiana purchase & march to Moscow.
Marquis Lafayette
Figure of the French Revolution who also played a role in the American Revolution
First Estate
The estate that was made up of clergy
Maximilian Robespierre
Was beheaded on July 28, 1794 which ends the terror
La Fyett
who wrote the declaration of rights of man and citizen
bourgeoisie (burzh-wah-ZEE)
the middle class, was another part of the Third Estate
Robespierre
Known as a radical, he led the Reign of Terror
tennis court oath
said that the deputies of 3 estate would continue to meet until they made a new constitution
coup d'etat of Fructidor
Resolved issues of the French republic and helped set up conditions for peace.
Napoleon's Ambition Brings Hardships
~his victories inspired a strong sense of nationalism among the ppl of France
~feeling was not mutual outside of France- they didn't appreciate French culture forced upon them
~European nations begin to rebel
-Spain uses guerilla warfare to pester Napoleon
- Austrian attempt at Austerlitz failed
social causes of french revolution
first and second estates had more privileges
Night session of August 4th
Second estate gave up their nobility privileges although they had already lost them
What did the declaration of rights and man not include?
Getting rid of taxes
Was the new constitution radical?
For the time, yes. Only certain citizens paying taxes could vote. 30% of men were prevented from voting. Only well-to-do citizens could sit in assembly. It became liberal later
Declaration on the Rights of Man
created by The Estates General which declared that all men are equal and have the same rights. It was completely radical in the sense that no one should receive special preference, it also focused a lot on the ideas of the Philosophes. (1789) It even destroyed all church involvement in governmental matters.
Why was Robespierre executed?
He led the Reign of Terror, and the other revolutionaries turned against him
Why was Marie Antoinette not popular?
Because she was an Austrian and she said "let them eat cake". She was insensitive to the needs of the poor.
What does the Napoleonic Code establish?
A free legal tax and trade code for laws.
What was the Bastille? What happened to it? Significance?
Fortress used as a prison and armory. French people took 5 cannons and turned them on Bastille and they surrendered. Symbol of old regime has fallen and caused the king to withdraw troops around Paris
what was the declaration of rights of man and citizen
a hybrid of D. of I. (Natural rights, Social contract, tight to rebel, popular sovereignty) and bill of rights.
liberalism
belief in progress
Abdicate
to give up power
blow to the state
coupdetot
Prerevolutionary French society was marked by great social
inequality
encyclopedia spread the ideas of
enlightenment
a vote of the people
plebiscite
"sans culottes"
when they wear long pants
Where French aristocrats taxed during the time of Louis XVI
no
Lawyer vs. Laywer
*Georges Jacques Danton
-Realizes things are getting out of control
(too many people getting killed)
what economic poilicy seeks to maximize foreign expots and internal serves of bullion
mercantilism
The Left
They were radicals, wanted sweeping changes in government, hated king, and wanted to set up a Republic.
lycees
government run public schools set up by Napoleon to create a more equal chance at education. However this didn't really allow the poorer children to get a better education because they often had to stay home and work.
Marat
French revolutionary, who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
Coup d'etat
A sudden overthrow of the government
The french finally reached moscow in spetember buthe next day most of msocw burned leaving the french little shelter. When the french troops finally withdrew, the russians constantly attacked them. OF the 600.000 that enterned rusia ___ dies
400,000
british surrender to americans
yorktown oct 17, 1771
John Locke (660)
• Philosopher• “Life, Liberty, and Property”• Responsible fro joining the Enlightenment’s concern for personal freedom and legal equality to a theoretical justification of liberal self-government. • Maintained that England’s long political tradition rested on “the rights of Englishmen” and on representative government through Parliament. • If a government oversteps its proper function of protecting the nautral rights of life, liberty, and private property, it becomes a tyranny.
summer of 1789
time period of the Great Fear
Georges Danton
The appointed minister of justice, who eventually became one of the leaders of the Committee of Public Safety. He was eventually a victim of the national razor
What were the causes of the French Revolution? What political, economic, social, and intellectual conditions contributed to the Revolution?
d
what caused the abloshiment of the monarchy and the house of lords, executed charles II and abolished the angilcan chruch
rump prliament
Intermediary Groups
• Best defense of liberty against despotism
face was on french currency that identified him
louis xiv
the National Convention
had Louis XVI and Mary Antoinette executed
"Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains"
Rousseau
The emigres wanted the other nations of Europe to
stop the revolution
electors
The only ones who could vote under the Constitution of 1795, those who owned or rented a certain amount of property were the only ones who could vote.
why was louis xvi executed
trialed for treason january 1793
the pragmatic sanction
provided a legal basis for the inheritance of maria Therese to the hasburg throne
Storm/Fall of Bastille
July 14th, 1789. Happened in response to a rumor that the King was going to attack the National Assembly. Two Reasons why: Searching for weapons and to topple a symbol of the King
9th of Thermidor
On this date, Robespierre was about to release his new list of enemies of the state but before he could say anything he was taken away and shot in the face. He was later executed by the guillotine; the revolution ate its own
Constitution of 1795
It set up two legislative bodies, the Council of 500, drafted laws, and the Council of Elders (250 people) accepted or rejected said laws. Only electors could vote, those who owned a certain amount of property.
why did the estates meet in versailles
write a new constitution
during the reign of terror, 2 cities were attacked
lyon and nantes
Flight of the Royal Family from Paris happened when?
June 20, 1791
who wrote in discouse on the origns of the inequalyt of mankind
jean jacues rousseau
(front of card)Napoleans last place of exile?
(back of card) Saint Helena
The Constitution of 1791 provided voting rights for
male citizens who paid a minimum tax
what was the avg pay for am soldiers in am rev
6 dollars a month
Necker replaced by Charles Alexandre de Calonne
1781, not long after Necker’s Compte Rendu au Roi was published.Calonne adopted a policy of introducing free trade & replacing the system of corporate tax privileges and feudal obligations with more universal and regular taxes. The magistrates objected, as in the past, to any policy that would curtail ‘privilege’.Calonne persuaded Louis XVI to convene an Assembly of Notables to endorse his reforms.
the treaty of wesphaila, weic ended the chaolic reformation in germany, also
renewered the peacy of augusbyr but now included luteranism clavinism and chatolicism.
What was the Battle of Trafalgar?
It was the only major battle that Napoleon lost in his drive for a European empire. This naval defeat was more important than all his land victories. It took place in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain. The British commander, Horatio Nelson was brilliant in sea warfare. he split the larger French fleet capturing many ships. This defeat ensured supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years and it forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain.
where di pesants money go and what percent of pop
rent on land, heaviest taxes, tithed the most to chruch 80%
How did the Third Estate being discontent become an immediate cause to the French revolution?
About 97% of the people belonged to the Third Estate. They lacked special privileges that the first and second estates had such as access to high offices and exemptions from paying taxes. They were poor since they were paid low wages and frequently out of work. They couldn't afford to buy a lot of food so the lower members of the Third Estate were always hungry. If the cost of bread rose, mobs of these tradespeople, apprentices, laborers, and domestic servants workers would attack grain carts and bread shops to steal what they needed. Most of the Third Estates were peasants. They paid half their income in dues to nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the king's agents. Peasants and the urban poor resented the clergy and the nobles for their privileges and special treatment.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen- August 27, 1789
• States that anyone can do anything they please unless they violate the law or hurt someone/something• It allows people to have their freedom• Sovereignty can take away any power that was not given to you• Protects a person’s liberty and freedom
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