Chapter 9 Flashcards

joints
Terms Definitions
List 3 structural classifications of joints.
Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial
List 3 functional classifications of joints.
Synarthroses, Amphiarthroses, Diarthroses
List 3 fibrous(synarthroses) joints.
Syndesmoses, Sutures, Gomphoses
List 2 cartilaginous(amphiarthroses) joints
Synchondroses, Symphyses
What are syndesmoses?
Joints where fibrous bands(ligaments) connect two bones.
This type of joint is found only in the skull.
Suture
In what type of people do sutures become ossified?
Older adults, form extremely strong lines of fusion.
Gomphoses
Occur between the root of a tooth and aveolar process of the mandible of maxilla.
Fibrous tissue between the tooth's root and the aveolar process is called the _________.
Periodontal membrane
Sutures are ____ types of joints.
Imoveable, fibrous(synarthroses)
How do most sutures look?
Teethlike projections jut out from adjacent bones and interlock with each other with only a thin layer of fibrous tissue between them.
The joint between the distal ends of the radius and ulna are _______.
Radioulnar interosseous ligament
Joint classified as fibrous but still allows movement because of ligament flexibility.
Radioulnar interosseous ligament
Synarthroses(fibrous joints) - amount of movement
Very limited movement in some fibrous joints, but most are fixed.
An example of syndesmoses joint.
Radioulnar interosseous ligament
An example of suture.
Coronal suture, lumboidal suture, etc.
An example of gomphosis.
Aveolar process of maxiall, mandible and root of tooth.
What are cartilaginous joints(amphiarthroses)?
Bones that articulate by either using hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage.
How much movement do cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses) allow?
Only very limited movment between bones in certain circumstances. Example: During childbirth symphysis pubis facilitates the baby's passage through pelvis.
Synchondroses
Bones that have hyaline cartilage between articulating bones.
Example of synchondroses?
Articulation between the first rib and sternum.
The epiphyseal plate is what type of cartilaginous joint?
Synchondroses
What kind of joint is symphyses?
A pad or disk of fibrocartilage connects two bones.
Give 2 examples of symphyses joints.
Symphysis pubis, articulation between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae.
The points of contact between articular facets of adjacent vertebrae are considered _______ joints.
Synovial
Synovial(diarthroses) joints
Freely moveable, most numerous and most complex joints. Most bones in appendicular skeleton are these.
List 7 structures of a synovial(diarthroses) joint.
Joint capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage, joint cavity, Menisci(articular disks), ligaments, bursae
List 3 types of synovial(diarthroses) joints.
Uniaxial, Biaxial, Multiaxial
Joint capsule(synovial joint)
Extension of the periosteum of each of the articulating bones. Capsule forms complete casing around the ends of bones, binding the to each other.
Synovial membrane(synovial joint)
Moist, slippery membrane that lines the inner surface of the joint capsule. Attaches to articular cartilage. Secretes synovial fluid, which lubricates and nourishes the inner joint surface.
Articular cartilage(synovial joint)
Thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering and cushioning the articular surfaces of bones.
Joint cavity(synovial joint)
Small space between the surfaces of the two bones of the joint. Absence of tissue between articulating bones surfaces is what allows extensive movement.
Menisci(articular disks) - (synovial joint)
Pads of fibrocartilage located between the articulating ends of bones in some diarthroses. The knee joint contains two menisci.
Ligaments(synovial joint)
Strong cords of dense, white fibrous tissue at most synovial joints. These grow between the bones, lashing them together.
Bursae(synovial joint)
Some joints contain this, pillow like structure formed of synovial membrane. Function to cushion the joint and facilitate movement of tendons.
Bursitis
Inflammation of the bursa, because of excessive us of knee, elbow joints(where bursa are found). Treated with immobilization of joint and use of anti inflammatory drugs.
Uniaxial joints
Permit movement around only one axis and in only one plane.
Biaxial joint
Diarthroses that permit movements around two perpendicular axes in two perpendicular planes.
Multiaxial joints
Permit movements around three or more axes and in three or more planes.
Types, functions, examples of uniaxial joints.
Hinge joints - permit only back and forth movements, flexion and extension., trochlea and semi ulnar notch.Pivot joints - projection of one bone articulates with a ring or notch of another bone. For rotation, examples are : projection of second cervical vertebra that articulate with ring shaped portion of first cervical vertebra. Head of radius that articulates with radial notch of ulna.
2 types of biaxial joints and examples.
Saddle joints - only two in body, one in each body; Condyloid joints - condyles of the occipital bone fit into eleliptical depressions of the atlas; distal end of radius fits into depressions of the carpal bones.
List 2 multiaxial joints, and examples
Ball and socket joints(spheroid joints - most movable joints. Example shoulder and hip bones.Gliding joints - joints between articular surfaces of successive vertebrae. Least movable joints.
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