French Revolution and Napoleon Flashcards

Terms Definitions
bourgeoisie
middle class
Paris
was in France.
plebiscite
vote of the people
Robespierre
lawyer and politician; "the incorruptible"; promoted religious toleration and wanted to abolish slavery; he executed many people
Sans-Culottes
Hard-core revolutionaries who refused to wear fine clothing; stands for "without breeches"
Jocobins
revolutionary political club. Mostly middle class lawyers or intellectuals
Estate Generals
French representative assembly called into session by Louis XVI to address pressing problems and out of which the French Revolution emerged; the three estates, or legal order, were the clergy, the nobility and the commoners.
Feudalism
absolute monarch owns all the land
Talleyrand -
French diplomatic representative at the Congress of Vienna who pressured Klemens von Metternich to include France in the negotiations
Dissenters
people who disagree with official religious or political opinions
Legislative Assembly
1791—1792: War w/
Austria; Sept. Massacres; rise of Paris
Commune
Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon's unsuccessful naval invasion of Great Britain. Admiral Lord Nelson defeated the French navy in this battle.
Civil Code
Napoleonic Code; this code preserved most of the gains of the revolution by recognizing the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law, and ect.
Maximilien Robespierre
Dominated the Committee of Public Safety after Danton.
guillotine
a machine that beheaded millions of people
Estates
social, political, or rank in French society
Republic
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Constitution of 1791
established a limited constitutional monarchy, Legislative Assembly sat for 2 years, 745 representatives, divided France into districts and communes, only active citizens could vote
Cahiers
list of grievances drawn up by delegates going to the meeting of the estates general
Jean-Paul Marat
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
Deficit spending
happens when a government spends more money than it takes in
Hundred Days
The return of Napoleon after Louis XVIII fled. Tried to fight against the allies, but was crushed at Waterloo on June 18,1815.
Elba
Napoleon sent to exile on this island the first time.
Emigre
nobles anf other who had fled France during the peasnt uprising
Continental System
Napoleon used this system to attempt to cut off England's trading with the rest of Europe; however, the negative aspects outweighed the positive aspects.
Girondins
was a member of the faction Jacobin, they represented the provinces, areas outside the cities, feared radicals in Paris wanted to keep the king alive.
Jacques Louis David
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793).
Second Coalition -
the second attempt by European monarchs, led by Austria and Russia, to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France. They formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back France's previous military conquests; after the British success against the French in the Battle of Niles, the Russians withdrew from Western Europe; this war ended when the Austrians signed the Peace of Luneville and the British signed the Peace of Amiens
peninsulares
they wanted to restore their power and control over the land.
Estates General
The legislative branch of the French government prior to the French Revolution; it could meet only with permission from the king.The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the old regime.
The Plain
In the French Revolution, the moderate deputies in the National Convention. They formed the majority of the assembly's members and were essential to the passage of any measures. Led by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, the Plain initially voted with the moderate Girondins but later joined the Mountain in voting for the execution of Louis XVI. However, in 1794 they helped overthrow Robespierre and other extreme Jacobins.
Great Fear
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789.
Marie Antoinette
Austrian Wife of Louis the XVI. She cared mainly about herself. She bought herself many extravagant things while the common people were starving. Unpopular with the French people.
St. Helena
was where Nap lived after his last defeat a small island in south Altantic, basically the middle of know where.
Battle of Waterloo -
Napoleon's final military defeat, by the British and Prussians after he escaped from the island of Elba; the second treaty of Paris treated France more harshly
coup detat
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation.
Storming oF the Bastille
Foreign soldiers seen at Versailles. People feared attack. Looked for guns. Went to Bastille. Mob. 3 invited in. Lunch. Confusion Attack. Soldiers surrender. Louis was still king
Napoleonic Empire
Conquers all of Europe except UK and Russia. Places his family in charge of lands.
First Estate
The Clergy who made of 1% of the French Population. They paid no taxes and collected the Tithe (Church Tax).
The Republic of Virtue
A democratic republic composed of good citizens.
Congress of Vienna
the committe that redrew the map of redrew Europe and bordered France with a bunch of strong countries so they couldn't spread and spread their ideas of revolution as well
Jena and Auerstadt -
battles at which Napoleon defeated the Prussian army shortly after they entered the war
Tennis Court Oath
a group from the third estate decided to not disband until they have a constitution, the doors were locked to their meeting place
Declaration of the Rights of Men and the Citizen
France's Declaration of Independence.
"Careers open to talent" -
Napoleon's policy of open office and hiring individuals based on skill and qualification, not noble background
Execution of the King and Queen
The National Convention
voted 387 to 334 to
execute the monarchs.
King executed January 21, 1793.
Marie Antoinette- October 1793
Why did the Reign of Terror End?
- Thermidorean Reaction
- Robespierre arrested, tried, and guillotined.
"What Is the Third Estate?" -Abbe Sieyes
from the first estate, said the third estate was the whole of France, "all that which is not the Third Estate, cannot be regarded as being of the nation
Why and how did the rule of the Directory come to an end?
- Corrupt and inefficient.
- Napoleon overthrew it with the Coup d'etat
- Replaced by the Consulate.
faction
a dissenting group.
Waterloo
Site of Napoleons final battle
consulate
government established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799, with Napoleon as first consul in control of the entire government.
Europeans
they challenged old economic patterns of taxation and property ownership and began to adopt more equal treatement for all.
girondin
Political faction stemming from the Jacobins; did not support Parisian military; did not want Louis XVI executed because they thought he would become a martyr
Coup d'Etat
a sudden overthrow of the government
nationalism
The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols.
guerrilla warfare
a hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war
Castlereagh -
the British foreign minister who gained acceptance for British war aims by using the promise of British subsidies; Britain formed the Quadruple Alliance with Russia, Austria, and Prussia, causing Napoleon to abdicate
National Assembly
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on june 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
jacobin
The liberal members of the Legislative Assembly. was divided into the two parties the girondin and the mountian
Russian Campaign
• Despite early treaty, Russia continues to
trade w/England
• Napoleon decides to invade
• Amasses army of ~500,000 (422,000-
600,000???)
• Invasion begins in June, 1812
• Remembered as one of history's greatest
military disasters
Napoleonic Code
Made the same rules and procedures apply throughout France. It eliminated all privileged groups before the law, and treated all French citizens equally.
Anne-Louise-Germaine de Stael
a prominent writer of the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras in France. She established a salon for the powerful.
Russia
was the country that defeated Nap. and set all of their countrysides & villages on fire so that Nap. & his soliders wouldn't have food or shelter.
September Massacre
When the Paris Commune killed about 1200 people from the city jails because they were assumed to be counterrevolutionaries
Mary Wollstonecraft -
English women's rights activist and author of Vindication of the Rights of Women in 1792
De-Christianization of Revolution
-saint removed from street names, churches, etc.
-cathedral of Notre-Dame- "Temple of Reason"
-adoption of Republican calender: revolution festivals, 5 days left over in year to celebrate virtues: virtue, intelligence, labor, opinion, and rewards
-faced opposition
legitimacy
the hereditary right of a monarch to rule.
Marquis de Lafayette
French aristocrat who volunteered to serve in Washington's army
How should Napoleon's legacy be viewed? Positives/Negatives?
Positive:
-Napoleon's code, nationalism.
-Military legacy- One of the greatest.
Negative:
- Deaths of hundreds of thousands of French soldiers.
- French economy decreased.
Laissez Faire
- The idea that the government should not overly regulate or tax businesses. Many believed that this lack of regulation would ensure the most efficient distribution of resources and wealth.
Napoleon Bonaparts
Rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution and established the French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815.
Duke of Wellington
Met Napoleon with a combined British and Prussian army and gave Napoleon a bloody defeat.
Marseilles
a port city in France, where a song was sung to fight against tyranny - now known as the national anthem of this country.
"Nation of Shopkeepers" -
Napoleon's derogatory name for the British, insinuating that they were militarily weak and only concerned with their small businesses
the abbe sieyes
the Abbé Sieyès penned his pamphlet Qu'est-ce que le tiers état? ( What is the third estate? ). This pamphlet, published in early 1789, attacked noble and clerical privileges and was hugely popular throughout France amongst the many persons who hoped for reform.
He advocated the abandonment of the traditional functioning of the three Estates as seperate blocs and the formation of a single chamber National Assembly. He participated in the writing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the constitution of 1791.
Committee of Public Safety
Robespierre was in charge of the committee, he decided who should be considered enemies of the republic
coup d`etat
a sudden overthrow of the gov. led by the successful and popular general Nap.
"Reign of Terror" -
movement by the Committee of Public Safety, at least 40,000 people died, including Marie Antoinette and members of the Catholic clergy; polarized France in the long-term
Olympe de Gouges
wrote a declaration of the rights of women.
What groups/people were most in favor of the revolution? Most against?
In favor: Robespierre,Marat, Girondins, Jacobins.
Against: Royalists, counterrevolutionaries.
Nap's grand Empire & its collapse
the French empire, dependent states, and allied states. French empire was the inner core of the Grand Empire. dependent states were kingdoms under the rule of Nap. relatives. allied states were those defated by Nap.& forced to join his struggle against BR.
What were the legacies/changes of the Revolution?
- More secularized government.
- Declaration of the rights of man and citizen still used.
- French Republic
- Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.
Women's March on Versailles
women go to the Hotel de Ville (City Hall) to demand bread, and after that they march to Versailles- even though the king promises them grain supplies, they insist that the royal family return to Paris (king was virtually a prisoner)
3rd estate demands at Estates General
They wanted half of the vote. Wanted estates to meet together. they had 600 votes, other 2 each had 300. king said no.
What was the purpose of the revolutionary policy of de-Christianization?
- To ban the public exercise of religion.
- Completely separate Church from State.
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