French Revolution B Flashcards

Terms Definitions
plebiscite
...
Diderot
wrote encyclopedia
guerilla warfare
...
Taille
France's chief tax
Jacobins
famous political club
George Danton
Minister of Justice
Dates of French Revolution
1789-1830
Mob
Large crowd of rioting people
when was the great fear
1789
Second Estate
Nobility + privileged people
Hundred Days
the return of napoleon
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Katherine
smart,czarina,got a warm water port,finished the Hermitage,fromed alliance with French,British, and Italians
Napoleonic Code
embodied enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism.
Inalienable
Incapable of being repudiated or transferred to another.
Voltaire
imprisoned twice for writing about injustices in government, religious toleration, liberty
napolenic code
fundamental laws of france all
Estates-General
assesmbly of representitives from all three estates to approve new tax (versailles, may 5th, 1789)
Versailles
royal palace of the Bourbon family
liberty under napoleon
only freedom of opportunity
Estates General
An assembly of representatives from all 3 classes.
faction
dissenting groups of people trying to gain power
cahier
They were notebooks written by the members of the Estates-General talking about the reforms that should happen that they would present to Louis XVI. They talked about taxes, high prices, and freedom of press.
bastille
an armory and old prison in paris
Second Coalition
Comprised of Russia, the Ottomans, Austria, and Britain, these were parties that fought against first the Directory and later the ; after initial successes in 1799 under the old Russian general Suvorov, they were defeated in 1800 by Napoleon's victory at Marengo and that of Moreau at Hohenlinden. They fought from 1798 to 1801, and the war was ended by the Treaty of Luneville.
The Constitutional Monarchy of France from members of the Third Estate that swore an oath to write a new constitution for France.
National Assembly
reason
a fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion
New Gov 1795
Republic, 5 corrupt moderate directors
Country Card
Because tax collections had ceased, the government had no money. The state then seized Church property and issued paper money, called what?
A: Assignats.
hierachy
a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority
1795-1799
a period of corruption and stealing money
Socialism
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
Distribution of wealth (Rich gave poor people money)
legitimacy
all former ruling families should be restored to their thrones
Olympe de Gouges
French journalist who published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizens, spoke out for gender equality by law and was killed for her ideas
Maximellion Robespierre
most important member of the Committee of Public saftey, was incharge of the mas beheading and when other officials found out he was crazy they had him beheaded as well
Marsielles
port city where people would sing the future National Anthem of France
Reign of Terror
The period 1793-1794 in revolutionary France when suspected traitors were beheaded in great numbers; lead by Robespierre
constitution of 1791
limited monarch, natural rights, RCC under control of govt.
Maxmilien Robespierre
leader of jacobins and ruled france after beheading of louis XVI, executed many ppl with the new guillotine and was eventually killed by it
Third Estate
everybody else, about 97% of the population, 20,000,000 people
Planned Economy
In response to inflation and high unemployment, Robespierre and the government set maximum prices for products, rather than relying on supply and demand.
Czar Alexander I
leader of russia helped defeat napoleon in Leipzig
National Convention
the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
Grand Armée
Napoleon's renamed army after 1805. At its largest in 1812 it numbered over 600,000 men, among them Poles, Italians, Swiss and Bavarians.
Estate
a major social class or order of persons regarded collectively as part of the body politic of the country and formerly possessing distinct political rights
Maximilien Robespierre
leader of the Committee of Public Safety ruled France as dictator during Reign of Terror
napoleon empire
he won land all europe ,appointed family as ruler.
Committe of public safety
Robespierre was head of this committee, the accused were tired in the morning and guillotined in the afternoon, VERY HARSH. was given dictorial powers in 1793 helped start the reign of terror
Lomenie de Brienne
Successor to Calonne who tried the same thing and failed as well.
What led to French Revolution
Financial crisis; poor harvest/food shortage; Gov't continued to spend lots of $
Paris in Arms
lafayette headed the national Guard, a largely middle-class militia organized in response to the arrival of Royal troops in Paris " hero of two worlds "
2 estates privleges?
1) access to high offices
2) exemptions from paying taxes
October Days 1789
bad harvest, rise in bread prices, leads to bread riots
October 5 : PARISIAN BREAD RIOT
October 6 : Armed mob of 20,000 attacks Versailles palace, kill royal bodyguard invade Queen's apartments royal family forcibly brought back to Paris accompanied by mob
Edict of Fraternity (1702)
Take revolution to suppressed people everywhere. Promised "liberty."
Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
The Thermodorian Reaction
rogue Spear's death was a turning point in the revolution. In a short time, the reign of terror, which had killed over 25,000 people, came to a close. It began a new phase of the revolution called the Thermodorian Reaction. . It displayed a wariness of the terror and fear that the Sans-Culottes had become too powerful. . The wealthy middle-class and professionals became the dominant political force. In week's Journal of beasts were allowed to return to their seats, a general amnesty free political prisoners, the notorious law of 22 Prarial was repealed, the power of the committee of public safety was diminished, the Paris commune was outlawed, and the Jacobins clubs were closed. . The execution of former terrorists is known as the White terror. Those associated with the reign of terror and other famous Jacobins were executed. In Lyons, Marseilles, and Toulon armed youths known as the "band of Jesus" executed suspected terrorists in prison. Catholic services were allowed to be held again, refractory priests returned to the country, and there was a genuine revival of Catholic worship. The Thermodorian reaction also repealed legislation that disadvantaged women, though it did not extend their rights or improve education. due to the influence of the revolution. It is possible that Frenchwoman had less freedom after 1795 than before 1789.
Concert of Europe
a system in which Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe
Tennis Court Oath
third estate swore they would not stop meeting until a French constitution was made
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French constitution patterned after the United States Constitution.
what happen in 1791?
the french constitution was written it created a constitutional monarchy
the campaign of 1812
-czar Alexander I uses a scorched earth policy
-battle of borodino
-moscow burned ahead of the French advance
-Napoleon withdraws
-more troops die due to the cold rather than from battle
Royal Debt
A debt that is the problem of the King
EX) Debt on France
declaration of rights of man
people have rights for themselves, given by the nation, not the king. transition to constitution
Who forms it? (national-assembly)
the people of the third estate, mostly the bourgeoisie
Napoleon in 1792
became captain and in teh age of 24, made brigadier general
storming of versailles
a crowd led by women march to the king, storm his palace, and take him and his family to paris
Night session of August 4th
A meeting of the members of the National Assembly in which they voted to end their own privileges and abolished feudalism.
What to do with the King
- The King was convicted with...
i) Treason - Plotting against the revolution (letters to Marie Antoinette's relatives in Austria, etc)
ii) Treason - Abandoning his country - (evidenced by escaping from Paris & trying to flee to Austria especially while France is at war with Austria)
iii) Bankrupting the country
- the Mountains argued that a king would inspire counter-revolutions
- Girondins pleaded for the king to live but the plain sided with the Mountains, and Louis was sentenced to death
who was involved in the hundred days
Louis XVII was in rule of France
The estates general becomes the national assembly
the estates general was made up of three estates: the clergy was the first estates; the nobility was the second estates; and everyone else was the third estate. Representatives from the third estate were primarily drawn from wealthy commercial and professional classes. All representatives were men. Abbe Sieyes was a priest, who made the comment capturing the third Estate's outlook: what is the third estate? Everything. What has it been in the political order up to the present? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something.
Why did Napoleon's campaign to add to his Empire by taking Russia fail? What exactly happened to his army
Many of Napoleon's troops were not French, and they felt of little loyalty to Napoleon. Napoleon's campaign failed in Russia because Alexander I practiced a scorched-earth policy, burning all the crops and killing all the livestock so the enemies had nothing to eat. Desperate soldiers left French army in search of food. Many of Napoleon's soldiers died from wounds, exhaustion, hunger, thirst, and cold.
why was the tennis court oath important
if they would not have protested for a new constitution, there would be no change in the equality status, which was important becasue that is waht they fought for
B a T t L e O f W a T e R l O o :)
*french fought two armies.
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