Digestive/Urinary/Exocrine/Reproductive System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is the muscular movement of the gut wall leading to the breakdown, mixing, and passge of ingested nutrients, then elimination of wastes?
What are the four overall functions of the digestive system?
Digestion, Peristalsis, Secretion, and Absorption
What are the two types of Digestion?
Mechanical and Chemical
What are the four major layers of the G.I. tract
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis, Serosa
What are the three tissue types in the Muscosa layer?
Epithelium, Lamina propria, Muscularis mucosa
What is the tissue type in the Submucosa?
Connective tissue layer with blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves
What is the tissue type in the Muscularis?
Two layers of smooth muscle
What tissue type is in the Serosa?
Loose connective tissue
What are the 3 sublayers of the mucosa?
Epithelium, Lamina Propria and Muscularis mucosa
What tissue type is in the Epithelium sublayer of the mucosa?
Simple columnar epithelium with mucous glands
What type of tissue is in the lamina propria of the mucosa sublayer?
Loose areolar connective tissue
What tissue type is found in the Muscularis mucosa of the mucosa sublayer?
Thin layer of smooth muscle
What is the name for specialized columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucous?
Goblet cells
The internal cavity of the g.i. tract is called the???
How is the surface epithelium of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus different from the rest of the g.i. tract? Why is it different?
Mouth pharynx and the initial part of the esophagus are of stratified squamous epithelium because it undergoes more abrasive actions of chewing, masserating and grinding food bulk before it is swallowed.
What layer of the mucosa can you not see on our slides of the g.i. tract?
Muscularis mucosa, it is too thin for our scopes to discern
What is the function of the muscularis externa?
It contracts and moves villi and plicae
The muscularis externa consists of what 2 sublayers?
Longitudinal and circular
When the circular smooth muscle layers contracts what effect does this have on the g.i. tract?
It segments the food mass or segmentation contractions
When the longitudinal smooth muscle layer contracts what effect does this have on the g.i. tract?
It generates peristaltic waves that move food along G.I. tract
How is the muscularis externa of the pharynx and esophagus different from the rest of the tract?
First 1/3 of pharynx and esophagus is all skeletal muscle
Middle 1/3 is mixture of skeletal and smooth muscle
Bottom 1/3 is all smooth muscle
How is the muscularis externa of the stomach different from the rest of the g.i. tract?
Consists of 3 layers: longitudinal, circular and oblique
How is the muscularis externa of the colon different from the rest of the g.i. tract?
It is much thinner and the longitudinal layer is divided into bands called teniae coli
What is another name for the serosa tha tcovers the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Visceral peritoneum = mesenteries
What is another name for the serosa that lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Parietal peritoneum
What are the functions of the mesenteries?
Prevent entagnlement of intestines
Contain vessels and nerves and lymphatic tissue
Prevent attachment of intestines to abdominal wall
Explain the difference between intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal.
Intraperitoneal refers to organs within the peritoneum l
Is the stomach Intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal?
Is the liver intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal?
Is the duodenum and pancreas intra or retroperitoneal?
Pancreas and duodenum are partially retroperitoneal
The oral cavity is involved in what type of digestion
Both mechanical and chemical
Chemical digestion in the oral cavity involves what enzyme?
Salivary amylase
Mechanical digestion in the oral cavity involves what 2 structures?
Teeth and tongue
What are the six components of saliva?
Amylase, Mucin, Lipase, Bicarbonate, Antibodies, and Lysozymes
What is the function of amylase?
Breaksdown carbohydrates
What is thefunction of Mucin?
Moistens and binds food mass
What is the function of Lipase?
Activated in stomach to break down lipids
What is the function of Bicarbonate?
Makes mouth alkaline in pH
What is the function of Antibodies?
Kill foreign bacteria
What is the function of Lysozymes?
Kills foreign bacteria and pathogens
What enzyme is secreted by the salivary glands and is activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
Lingual lipase
What is the function of the pharynx and the esophagus?
To conduct food to stomach
What sphincter is associated with the lower esophagus? Why is this sphincter called a physiological sphincter? What is its function?
Lower esophageal sphincter is not a true anatomical sphincter but physiologically keeps food mass in the stomach and prevents regurgitation back into esophagus
What are 3 functions of hte stomach?
Digestion; peristalsis and Secretion
The stomach is associated with what types of digestion?
Both chemical and mechanical
Chemical digestion of what organic molecules occurs in the stomach?
Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.....Not nucleic acids.
What allows stomach to churn and mix food?
Three layers of smooth muscle
What are the ridges in the stomach wall that alllow for distention?
What 2 sphincters are associated with the stomach?
Esophageal and pyloric
Content of the stomach are referred to as what?
What are the 3 regions of the small intestines?
Duodenum. Jejunum. and Ileum
The mucosa and submucosa of the small intestines are deeply folded to form the ......... circularis?
The mucosa is further folded into projections called......
The cell membranes of the colunar epithelial cells are further folded to form......
What is the function of all this folding of villi and microvilli?
Increases surface area from 3 square feet to 2200 square feet
What are the functions of the small intestines?
Peristalsis, digestion, secretion, and absorption
The small intestines are involved in what type of digestion?
Mechanical and chemical
Chemical digestion in the small intestines involves secretion from what 3 organs?
Pancreas; liver and stomach
Where does most water and mineral ion absorption take place in the g.i. tract?
Large Intestines
Substances transported into msall intestine villi capillaries are transported to the liver via the....?
hepatic portal system
Where does carbohydrate digestion begin? Where is it completed?
Begins in the mouth and ends in the small intestines
Where does lipid digestion begin? where is it completed?
Begins in the stomach and is completed in small intestins
Where does protein digestion begin? where it si completed
begins in the stomach and is completed in the small intestines
What happen to large lipid globules before digestion enzymes can go to work?
Bile breaks themd own by lowering surface tension
Where does nucleic acid digestion begin? where is ti completed?
Begins and ends in small intestines
Bile from the common bile duct and pnacreatic enzymes from the pancreatic duct enter the duodenum of the small intestines through the........????
Hepatopancreatic ampulla
There are 2 openings into the duodenum. The superior one is for the ....
major duodenal papilla
What is the inferior opening into the duodenum for?
minor duodenal papilla
What duct is associated with the gall bladder?
Common cystic duct
What ducts deliver bile from liver cells?
Hepatic duct
Six sided hepatic lobules are arranged around a.....vein
............ is located at each corner of the hepatic lobule.
portal triad
A portal triad is composed of a hepatic artery, a ........... and a ...........
A portal triad is composed of a hepatic artery, a hepatic portal vein and a  bile duct
leaky capillaries called.......... allow the blood to percolate through the liver
hepatic sinusoids
What is bile composed of? What is the function of bile?
Bile salts, cholesterol and bilirubin
What is bilirubin and where does it come from?
Breakdown product from hemoglobin and rbcs
What symptom would be an indication that the liver is not functioning properly?
Jaundiced, always tired and lack energy
What are the macrophages contained in the liver that remove microbes and worn out blood cells?
Kupfer cells
The liver metabolizes toxic ......... itno urea to be excreted by the kidneys
Explain how the liver kidneys and skin are involved in the synthesis of calcitriol. What is the target organ of calitriol and what is the effect of this hormone?
Exposure of skin to UV rays of un forms Vit D3 which is acte upon by the liver and kidneys to form the active form of vit D target organ of calcitrol is the small intestines
What vitamins and minerals are stored by the liver?
vit. A and iron
What organ makes cholesterol?
What molecules are responsible for the transport of cholesterol inthe blood?
Which cholesterol is good? indicates that lots of cholesterol is being transported to the liver and to be disposed of in bile?
Which cholesterol is bad? this indicates that a lot of cholesterol is being transported to body cells. The chance is high that fatty substanes will be deposited on arterial walls leading to .....
LDL and atherosclerosis
Your overall cholesterol level should be less than?
Your HDL level should be greater than?
In the liver cells glucosed is stored as.....? what hormone is involved in this process
glycogen / glucagon
What is the exocrine function of hte pancreas?
Secretes carbohydrases, lipases, proteases and nucleases inot the intestinal lumen
What is the endocrine function of hte pancraeas?
Secretes insulin and glucagon into the blood
What cells produce hormones in the pancreas?
Islets of langerhans Alpha and beta cells
What cells produce digestiive enzymes in the pancreas?
Acinar cells
True or False
The pancreatic and accessory pancreatic ducts deliver hormone and digestive enzymes to the small intestines
False, only digestive enzymes
Which hormone decreases blood glucose levels?
Which hormone increases blood glucose levels?
Name the 7 regions of the large intestines
Caecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum and anus
What is another name for the large intestines?
T or F Most of nutrient and water absorption occurs in the colon?
Fase, water is absorbed but not nutrients
What produces the gas associated with the lower bowel?
Bactrial actions on fiber
What is the appendix attached to?
What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic salivary glands?
Instrinsic salivary glands are in the lining of the mouth, lips and cheeks, whereas Extrinsic glands are those of the parotids, sublingual and submandibular
Name 4 sphincters / valves associated with the g.i. tract?
Esophageal, pyloric, ileocaecal and anal sphincteers
What is the toxic waste product formed from protein metabolism?
Urea is formed from what 2 things?
ammonia and CO2
Where is urea formed? which organ excretes it?
Urea is formed by the liver to be excreted by the kidneys
What is the waste product formed from nucleic metabolism?
Uric acid
Ureters transport urine from the kidneys to where?
What transports urine from the bladder to outside?
The medulla of the kidney is divided into what?
renal pyramids
Each renal pyramid terminates into what?
renal papilla
Renal papilla project into a cup shaped tube called a ???
calyx...minor calyx
The middle layer of the smooth muscle in the bladder is called the what muscle?
Detrusor muscle
What is the detrusor muscle?
The middle layer of smooth muscle in the bladder
What sphincter in the bladder is smooth muscle and involuntary control?
Internal urethra sphincter
What sphincter in the bladder is skeletal muscle and is under voluntary control?
External urethral sphincter
The kidneys, ureters and bladder are intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal?
The basic structural unit and functional unit of the kidney is the???
Which nephron has a relatively short loop of henle and is surrounded by a peritubular capillary bed?
Cortical nephron
which nephron has a long loop of henle and is surrounded by a capillary network called vasa recta?
What is the capillary bed of the Cortical nephron called?
What are the 2 major structures within a nephron?
Renal corpuscle and renal tubule
What are the two parts of the renal corpuscle?
Glomerulus and Glomerular or Bowman's capsule
What do the fenestrations in the glomerulus prevent filtration of?
Describe the glomerulus
The glomerulus consists of a ball or knot of capillaries with pores and fenestrations that allow for filtration of blood without loss of protein or cells through the wall
Describe the Bowman's capsules
Bowman's capsule looks like a claw hand with the extension of your arm being the proximal convuluted tubule. The capsule surrounds the glomerulus and the inner wall is of simple squamous epithelium
Name the parts of the renal tubules
Begins after glomerulus as blood passes through efferent duct into the proximal convuluted tubule into the descending limp of loop of henle hairpin turn of the loop and then the ascending limp of loop of henle into the distal convoluted tubule and then into the collecting duct
What is the primary function of long loops of Henle?
to concentrate the urine
A common...*BLANK*... collections urine from several nephrons. Renal pyramids are laregly composed of what ducts?....*BLANK*.... these empty urine into what cup shaped tubullse....*BLANK*
A common...Collecting Duct... collections urine from several nephrons. Renal pyramids are laregly composed of what ducts?... Collecting duct.... these empty urine into what cup shaped tubullse....Renal calyx
What do the efferent arteriole branches flow into?
Either the peritbular capillaries or the vasa recta depnding on the type of nephron
Name the 3 main processes of urine formation
Filtration Secretion and Reabsorption
What part of the nephron acts as the filter?
Renal capsule
Protein or blood cells in the urine indicate a problem with what part of the nephron?
Renal corpuscle
What are the three main processes of urine formation?
Filtration, Secretion and reabsorption
In what part of the tubule does reabsorption take place?
Proximal convoluted tubule due to microvilli which would increase the reabsorptive surface area. Peritublar capillaries then transport the reabsorbed molecules back into the circulation
In what part of the tubule does most secretion take place?
Distal convoluted tubule due to the decreased amount of microvilli
Would glucose concentration be higher in the proximal tubule or the distal tubule?
proximal convoluted tubule
Would nitrogenous waste concentration be higher in the proximal tubule or the distal tubule?
Distal convoluted tubule
What are five hormones that are amino acid or protein based?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Prolactin
How do amino acid or protein based hormones have an effect on the target cells?
They act on receptor sites on the cell membranes
Give 5 examples of hormones that are cholesterol or steroid based?
Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone
How does this type of hormone have an effect on its target cell?
Acts on receptor sites in the cells chromatin material (DNA)
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?
Endocrine glands secrete their products (hormones) directly into the blood stream. Exocrine glands secrete their products into the lumen of a gland or organ
Name three glands that are both endocrine and exocrine
Testes secrete testosterone and sperm
Ovaries secrete Estrogen, Progesterone and Ovum
the Pancreas secretes insulin, glucagon, and Pancreatic lipase and amylase
List 3 nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary
Growth Hormone which effects skeletal muscle and long bones
Prolactin which effects Breast mammary glands
Also the posterior pituitary secretes Oxytocin which effects the pregnant uterus
List 4 tropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland give target and the response hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone effects thyroid and has thyroid produce thyroxine and teraiodothyronine
Adrenocorticotropic hormone targets the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol which can elevate blood glucose levels during lots of stress
Follicle stimulating hormone targets the ovaries to further on secrete estrogen
and letuinizing hormone targets the testes and ovaries to in turn secrete testosterone or progesterone
What is the loop for thyroid stimulating hormone?
Effects the thyroid gland and induces thyroid gland to secrete triiodothyronine and thyorxine T3 and T4
What does adrenocorticotropic hormone do?
Effects adrenal cortex to release cortisol which elevates sympathetic responses
What does follicle stimulating hormone do?
effects the ovaries and has the ovaries secrete estrogen
What does letuinizing hormone do?
effects testes and ovaries to produce testosterone and progesterone
What gland produces melatonin? What is the function of melatonin?
Pineal gland regulates the darkening of the melanocytes in the skin
What is the loop for Calcitonin?
Calcitonin is produced in the Thyroid gland and targets the bones and kidneys to stimulate osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts which has a hypercalcemic effect in the blood.
What is the loop for parathyroid hormone?
Parathyroid hormone acts antagonistically to calcitonin and also effects the bones, kidneys and even intestines to stimulate osteoclast activity.
Calcitriol. whats the loop?
Produced by the kidneys to tell the intestins to absorb more calcium
What is the loop for estrogen pertaining to bone development?
estrogen is produced by the bones to target osteoblasts and increases osteoblast production
What is the loop for insulin?
Insulin is produced by the pancreas to increase uptake of glucose by cells in the body and increases glycogen synthesis in the liver
What is the loop for glucagon?
glucagon is also secreted by the pancreas and stimulates the liver to breakdown glycogen into glucose.
What is the loop for Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin?
antidiuretic hormone is produced in the hypothalamus and targets the collecting duct and the distal convulted tubule of the kidneys, it increases reabsorptoin of water by kidneys, decreases sweating and thus inreases blood pressure by vasoconstriction
Thus decreasing urine volume and increasing BP
What is the loop for alosterone?
Alosterone is produced by the Adrenal cortex and effects the kidneys which in turn increases the reabsorption of Na+ and increases secretion of K+ and thus helps retain water.
Name 3 adrenal cortex hormones and give a function for each?
Glucocorticoids - anti-inflammatory
Alosterone - regulates vascular volume
Androgens - aids in sexual maturation
What kind of stimulating does the adrenal cortex receive?
What 2 hormones are stored by the posterior pituitary gland?
Oxytocin and Anti-diuretic hormone
What gland produces oxytocin and ADH?
Produced by hypothalamus specifically in the supra optic and paraventricular nuclie
What gland and hormone is an important source of estrogen for postmenopausal women?
Adrenal gland and androgens
What is the function of T3 or tri-iodothyronine?
Increases metabolic rate, stimulates breakdown of carbs, fats and proteins
What is the function of T4 or tetra-iodothyronine
Increases metabolic rate, stimulates breakdown of carbs, fats and proteins
What is goiter?
Lack of iodine leads to overproduction of thyroglobin
What gland and hormone control secretion of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland?
Pituitary gland via Thyroid stimulating hormone
Do goiters involve hyposecretion or hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Hyposecretion of T3/T4 but over production of thyroglobin by follicle cells
What part of the testes produce testosterone?
Interstitial cells of Leydig
What part of the testes produce sperM?
seminiferous tubules
What structure partly surrounds the testes and is the site of sperm maturation?
Name the ducts that carry sperm from the epididymis to the outside body
Epididymis - vas deferens - ejaculatory duct - prostatic urethra - membranous urethra - penile urethra
What duct transports urine from the urinary bladder?
Prostastic urethra
Where is the prostate gland situationed? How is it palpated?
At the base of the bladder and surrounds the urethra. It is palpated by a rectal exam through the anus
Name the 3 glands that contribute seminal fluid
Prostate, seminal vesicles and bulbourethral
Which gland produces most of the seminal fluid?
seminal vesicles
What is the function of fructose, prostaglandins and clotting factors in the seminal vesicles
Fructose is a source of energy, prostaglandins produce uterine contractions of smooth muscle, and clotting factors promote clotting (coagulationg) of the semen in the vagina so it will be able to get up through the cervix
What are the functions of the secretions from the bulbourethral glands?
Serves as pre-ejaculate to flush the urine out of the urethra and neutralize its acidity
name or describe the structure of the penis...what causes an erection?
Glans is the bulbous tip; Corpra cavernosa is a paired dorsal cylinders that become engorged with blood during an erection. Corpra Spongiosum is an erective tissue that is surrounding the urethra,
What is the function of testosterone?
Hormone responsible for maturation of male secondary sex characteristics and production of sperm for reproduction
Ova develop in sac like strcutures called...?
The fluid filled cavity of an ovarian follicle is called an ....?
Ovarian follicle cells produce what 2 hormones?
estrogen and progesterone
What developes from an ovulated graafian follicle?
corpus luteum
What causes the ruptured Graafian follcile to change into the corpus luteum?
The corpus leteum will continue to produce what 2 hormones?
Estrogen and progesterone to prepare the endometrium for implantation by the zygote.
If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus letuem develops into a *BLANK* and degenerates. It will then stop producing estrogen and progesterone and the endometrium fo the uterus will slough off which is called....
corpus albicans and menstruation
What is the site of fertilization?
Distal end of fallopian tubes
What is the function of the uterus?
Implantation of the fertilized ova and maintain the embryo and fetus until partuition
What is the narrow end of the uterus that contains an opening that allows for the flow passage of sperm and birth
What are the 3 layers of the uterus?
Endometrium, Myometrium and Epimetrium
What female gland is the analogue to the bulbourethral gland in males? What is the function?
Vestibular or Bartholin glands, they aid in lubrication during intercourse
What female gland is the analogue to the male prostate gland?
Paraurethral or Skene gland
What is the pathway of bile throughout the Gall Bladder
Bile enters through the left and right hepatic ducts which empty into the common hepatic ducts to thec cystic duct and the gall bladder for storage
Bile leaves through the cystic duct and joints the pancreatic duct  to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla and empty into the duodenum - This release is controlled by the hepatopancreatic sphincters of Oddi
Bile salts act as detergents in breaking down lipids in the small intestines
What are contained in the walls of the large intestines?
Tenia Coli - longitduinal muscles that pull to form haustra
What is the Plicae Circularis?
Deep permanenet folds of mucosa and submucosa of duodenum and jejunum which force chyme to spiral through intestinal lumen; slows movement and increases absorptive surface area
What is the pampiniform plexus?
Changes blood temperature going into the testes to gain the righ ttemperature
What is the function of the Cremaster muscle?
retracts testicles closer to the body
What is the function of the Dartos muscle?
wrinkles and thickens skin of the scrotum
What does Estrogen do?
secreted by ovaries, stimulates the development of the female reproductive organs, follicle maturation, regulates menstrual cycle, stimulates growth of mammary glands
What does Progesterone do?
produced by ovaries. REgulates menstrual cycle, stimulates growth of uterine lining, stimulates growth of mammary glands
What hormones are produced in the thymus?
Thymosin and Thymopoetin and IGF-1
What are the cells of the Juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Macula Densa, Juxtaglomerular cells and Mesangial Cells
What do the Macular Densa do?
Located in DCT they monitor flow and urine composition
What do Juxtaglomerular cells do?
located in afferent and e fferent arterioles when stimulated they constrict to reduce flow through the glomerulus. Also secrete renin into the blood
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