Dixie State Anatomy 2320 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Define artery vs. vein
Artery is a vessel where oxygenated blood flows from heart to organVein is a vessel where DEoxygenated blood flows from organ to heart.
What is dangerous under pterion?
The meningeal artery which supplies dural covering of the brain
Which race has the largest maxilla?
African decent
mandibular nerve and accessory meningeal artery runs through this opening...
mandibular nerve, and middle meneingeal artery and vein run through this opening
foramen spinosum
What info can be learned from fontanelles?
Growing processAny cranial malfomrationsExistance of intercranial pressureLevel of hydration
What age can you no longer palpate the anterior fontanelle?
By 18 mos of age the bones are fused
By what age does the posterior fontanelle begin to close? By what age is it fused?
Begins to close in first few months of life. It is fused by 1 year of age
name the scalp layers
Define hydrocephalus
buildup of fluid inside the skull
Describe myelin
fatty substance that covers and protects nerves, a layered tissue with a sheath that acts as electrical conduit
The thick bone under the scalp contains prominent veins called...
They drain deoxygentated blood into a cavern with deoxygenated blood from the brain called the...
Diploic veins

Superior sagittal sinus
The veins that drain the blood are located between what connective tissue layers?
Dura mater
Describe aneurysm
bulging, weak area of an artery that supplied blood tot he brain
Describe subdural hematoma and identify what type of vessel is bleeding
a collection of blood below the dura mater....it is from a vessel carrying deoxygenated blood/ a vein
Define epidural hematoma, and indentfy what vessel is bleeding
blood accumulates BETWEEN dura mater and skull, caused by tearing of an artery
Describe subarachnoid hemorrhage, and what kind of vessel is bleeding
bleeding in the area between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater (subarachnoid space). The bleeding is from a cerebral artery
Describe cerebrospinal fluid
similar composition to blood but less protein. it is a clear, protective, nourishing fluid
what causes whit matter to be white?
This allows left and right cerebral cortices to communicate
corpus callosum
a relay station between the brain and spinal cord
allows 2 sides of cerebellum to communicate
anterior and posterior commisures
allows communication between olfactory and oculomotor nerves
anterior commisure relates to what nerve and affects what?
olfcatory nerve, sense of smell
posterior commissures relate to what nerve and affect what?
oculomtor and coordinates eye movement
Pineal gland plays what role
affects daily cycle...circadian rhytm
superior colliculus does what
coordinates head and neck responses to visual cues
inferior colliculus
coordinates head and neck responses to auditory cues
links nervous system to endocrine system via pituitary gland
medulla oblongata
autonomic functions such as breathing, blood pressure and heart rate
secretes hormones regulating homestasis such as TSH,FSH,oxytocin etc etc
carries signals from hippocampus to mammillary bodies and septal nuclei, "C" shaped bundle of axons/fibers
Brainstem is made up of...
midbrain, pons and medulla
midbrain is where?
junction of the middle and posterior cranial fosse
what cranial nerves are related to the midbrain
CN3 oculomotorCN4 Trochlear
Hippocampus located?Function?
Located inside medial temporal lobe of cerebral cortex, part of forebrainbelongs to limbic system affects short term and spatial navigation
where is CSF produced?
ventricles of the brain
area of brain important in information processing
the surface of the brain/grey matter
where is "thinking" occuring?
the surface or "cortex" of your brain
This area is involved in muscle coordination and some simple types of memeory
Cerebellar cortex
The ridges of cortex on the brain
the valleys on the brain
the very deep valleys on the brain
a stroke on the right side of the brain will effect what side of the body?
the left
a stroke on the right side of the brain will effect what side of the body?
the left
area known as the "motor strip"
pre-central gyrus
area known as the "motor strip"
pre-central gyrus
area known as the sensory strip
post-central gyrus
a TOUCH on your left arm will cause what area in the brain to fire?
cause neurons on your RIGHT post-central gyrus to fire
a TOUCH on your left arm will cause what area in the brain to fire?
cause neurons on your RIGHT post-central gyrus to fire
heschl's gyrus receives?
auditory input
wernicke's area does what?
decodes language
Broca's area affects?
where is heschl's located
anterior, transverse temporal lobe aka the primary auditory area
Where is Brocas?
Inferior third frontal lobe
Where is Wernicke's
posterior, superior temporal lobe
a lesion i wernicke's will affect??
ability to understand and produce meaningful speech....wrnicke;s aphasia
job of arcuate fasciculus
transfers info
bacterial infection of memebranes covering brain and spinal cord (meninges)
bacterial infection of memebranes covering brain and spinal cord (meninges)
alzheimers disease
affects amygdala and hippocampus where nerve cells degenerate and die causung memeory deficit and poor cognitive skills, it is progressive and fatal
parkinsons disease
progressive disorder on nervous system that affects movement...genetic and envirnomental factors
cerebral palsy
condition that involces brain and nervous system functions (movement, learning, hearing,sight,thinking) caused by brain injury/abnormality or hypoxia
huntingtons disease
genetic disorder from defect on chromososme #4, certain nerve cells in brain degenerate affects ability to think, move and talk. lose 25% of brain cells before death
brain disorder that involves repeated, spontaneous seizures
multiple sclerosis
progressive autoimmune disorder that affects CNS caused by damage to the myelin sheath
paralysis of one side of body
no speech
describe hippocampus
deep in forebrain helps regulate emotion and memeory
what is affected by lesion i Brocas area?
causes no fluent aphasia or expressive aphasia (can speak but not properly articulate or form words)
wernicke's lesion
fluent aphasia or receptive sensory aphasia (cannot understand spoken or written communication, speaks but incoherent)
What happens when right optioc nerve is gone?causes?
Monocular blindness of right eyeDiabetes,trauma, optic neuritis
lesion in optic chiasm, effect?
Effect is Bitemporal hemianopsia, no peripheral vision
lesion right optic tract or right occipital lobe lesion
left homonomous hemianospia
supplies medial surfaces of cerebral cortex and foot of humunculus
the anterior cerebral arteries
supplies lateral surface of each cortex and most of sensory and motor homunculi and language areas
Middle cerebral arteries
supplies posterior an inferior of each cortex
posterior cerebral arteries
major arteries that supply blood to arteries of brain
inteernal carotids and vertebral arteries
where is limbic system?
sorrounds thalmus
whats in limbic system and what do they do?
hippocampus- learning and memeoryamygdalla- emotion and memeorycingulate gyrus- emotion,memory and executive function and respiratory control
what muscles extend the leg
quadriceps-rectus femoris,vastus lateralis,medius and intermedius
where is quadriceps insertion point?
on patella through patellar tendon
the patelar ligament attaches what 2 structures?
the patella to the tibia
major leg adductors?
gracilis,adductor longus,adductor brevis and adductor magnus
describe groin pull
any of the 5 adductor muscles teAr or rupture
which tendons may ossify in equestrians?
patellar tendon
the great saphenous vein comes off
femoral vein
what artery pierces adductor magnus
deep femoral
what muscles does the lesser saphenous vein run through?
between the heads of the gastrocnemius muscles
Origin: PubisInsertion: Linea asperaActions (2): Adducts and flexes thigh
Adductor group
Origin: Femur, anterior inferior iliac spineInsertion: Tibial tuberosityActions (2): Flexes thigh and extends leg
Quadriceps femoris group
Origin: Ischial tuberosityInsertion: Tibia and fibulaAction (2): Extends thigh and flexes leg
Hamstring group
Origin: Anterior superior iliac spineInsertion: Tibia
Gluteus medius
Origin: IliumInsertion: Greater trochanter
Gluteus maximus
Origin: IliumInsertion: Greater trochanter
Origin: Ilium, lumbar vertebraInsertion: Lesser trochanter
what makes up acetabulum
describe the terrible triad
inury to anterior cruciate ligament, medial cruciate ligament and medial meniscus
common skiing movement that may break the ACL
what muscles makeup the triceps surae
lateral head of gastrocnemiussoleus musclemedial head of gastrocnemius
What vessels in popliteal fossa?
popliteal vein and artery and termination of small saphenous vein
what makes up the achilles tendon?
it is the plantaris,soleus and gastrocnemius muscles attached to the calcaneous
describe vericose veins
leaky valves that allow blood to accumulate
list gluteal muscles superior to inferior
Tensor fascia lataGluteus maximusGluteus mediusGluteus minimusPiriformiaSuperior gemellusObturator internusInferior gemellusQuadratus femoris
describie sciatica
sciatic nerve being compressed by piriformis muscle causing pain in buttocks
what tendon is attached to calcanous
soleus and gastrocnemius
structures anterior to medial malleolus
T ibialis psoteriorflexor Digitorum longusflexoe Hallucis Longus
tendons of muscles near lateral melleolus?(what bone are they near of leg?)
peroneus longus peroneus brevis
term for big toe
contraction of what quadrant causes dorsiflexion?
ctx of what quads cause eversion?
ctx of what quads cause plantarfelxion?
ctx of what quads cause inversion
I & IV
path of vessels of lower extremity
common iliac a/v becomes external iliac a/v but gives off internal iliac a/vexternal iliac becomes femoral after passing inguinal ligamentit gives off deep femoral passes post to adductor longus musclefemoral vessels go through adductor hiatus and become popliteal which goes posterior to patella and bifurcates to anterior tibial which passes anterior to interosseus memebrane between tibia and fibula where it becomes dorsalis pedis at ankle jointthe other portion of popliteal bifurcated into posterior tibial a/v and runs posterior to posterior tibialis muscle and terminates deep to flexor retinaculum
origin of what muscle cause shin splints?
Lower anterior leg muscles from lateral to medial
peroneus brevisperoneus longusextensor hallicus longusextensor digitorum longustibialis anterior THEN TO POSTERIORsoleus lateral gastrocnemiusmedial gastrocnemius
name the erector spinae lateral to medial
iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
facial muscle resp for kissing
orbicularis oris
muscle resp for squinting
orbicularis oculi
muscle that wrinkles forehead
muscle that helps you smile/lifts upper lip
levator labii suprioris
muscles that make you smile big
zygomaticus major n minor
cause frown
depressor anguli oris
folds back corners of mouth
makes u wiggle ears
post ant and sup auricular
big wide muscle on neck
whicxh arteries must not be injected by dentist
inferior alveoli and maxiallary
terminal branches off external carotid
maxillary,superficial temporal arteries
arteries that supply blood to head
common carotids
large veins that drain used blood back to the heart (in head,neck, shoulders)
internal jugular veins
layers on the neck
skinsuperifical fasciamuscledeep fascia
neck structures (bones and conective tissues) superior to inferior
hyoid bonethyroid memebranethyroid cartilaGEcricothyroid membranecricoid cartilagethyroid gland
where can emergency trach be perofmed?
cricothyroidotomy at the cricothyroid
function of thyroid and parathyroid glands
thyroid-regulates metabolismparathyroid-effects calcium absorption
function of thyroid and parathyroid glands
thyroid-regulates metabolismparathyroid-effects calcium absorption
name of 1st vertebrawhat is different from it vs other vertebra?
atlasit has no body or spinous process.
cervical vertebra #2 is also called what?What is specific about it?
the AxisIt has a protuberance called the odontoid process or the dens
this structure proects laterally from the vertebra and connects muscles and ligaments
transverse process
this slender projection from the posterior vertebra is what muscle and ligaments are attached to
spinous process
when the gel in IV disks center comes out and places pressure on peripheral nerves
herniated IV disk
pain in low back and hip, radiates back of thigh into leg
most problematic human vertebra, and why?
lumbar region , it bears most weight
which joint allows nodding
atlanto-occipital between C1 and occipital bone
what allows shaking head no?
atlanto-axial joint
vertebral column is curved or deviated laterally
lumbar curvature is bigger than normal, pelvis offten tilted forward
curvature of thoracic vertebra (often in the elderly)
Eye rotation by oblique muscles(Hint: I Love S&M)
Inferior Oblique=Lateral eye rotationSuperior Oblique= Medial eye rotation
hat are the 4 rotator cuff muscles?(Hint: SITS) superior to inferior order
supraspinatousinfraspinatousteres minorsubscapularis
What is tpn?
total parenteral nutritionvenous nutrition placed in subclavian vein
heart failure commonly swells which neck vein?
EJV external jugular vein
where are bp receptors found? what do they do?
baroreceptors react to blood pressure change they are found in carotid arteries and the aortic arch
where are bp receptors found? what do they do?
baroreceptors react to blood pressure change they are found in carotid arteries and the aortic arch
where are bp receptors found? what do they do?
baroreceptors react to blood pressure change they are found in carotid arteries and the aortic arch
a chemoreceptor that monitors the level of o2 in the blood
carotid body
4 major shoulder muscles
deltoidbiceps brachiitriceps brachiipec major and teres major (posterior)
major function of rotator cuff is to hold head of what bone into what other structure?
head of humerus into glenoid fossa
bones of pectoral girdle?
2 large processes on scapula?
coracoid and acromion
the attachment point that DOES move?
describe a pulled elbow
aka nursemaids elbowa dislocation of the radial head
fracture where end of bone protrudes through the skintreatment?
open fracture aka compound fracturesurgical treatment by open reduction-using traction pull bones apart and put in pins
fracture that does not protrude through skin
closed or simple fracture
fracture where bone fragments at impact site, often small fragments between bones
comminuted fracture
fracture where one end of bone is forcefully driven into interior of another bone 9affects ligaments, tendons and muscles)
impacted fracture
fracture of distal radius often from breaking a fall
colles fracture
partial fracture where one part of bone is broken and another part is only bent common in what population, why?
greenstick fracturekids because their bones are not ossified
connects muscle to bone
connects bone to bone
name and describe fibrous joint
immovable...skull sutures
describe and name example of cartilagenous joint
slight movementsymphysis pubis
describe and give example of synovial jointname the 3 types
moves freely3 types are pivot, ball and socketand gliding, hingehipwristselbow or knee
define joint capsule
fibrous layer containing synovial fluid that sorrounds joints
define bursa
a fluid filled cavity that reduces friction at moveable parts of body
define tendon sheath
layer of memebrane around a tendon
define luxation
joint dislocation, complete loss of contact between ends of bone that form joint
define subluxation
incomplete dislocation
what does double jointed mean?
having hypermobility of joints
3 muscles attached to coracoid process
coracobrachialis (attache)biceps brachii short head (attach)pec minor (insert)
pec minor O and I
o= 3rd to 5th ribsI= coracoid process of scapula
deltoid O and I
O- Front 1/3 of clavicle,border of the acromion, and lower edge of the spine of scapulaI- Deltoideus tubercle on the middle outer surface of the humerus
subclavian and axillary arteries what is their path, what do they give off?
aortic arch tobrachiocephalic artery becomes subclavianit gives offcommon carotid artery,vertebral and internal thoracic then at first rib becomes axillary artery which gives offthoracoacromial andhumeral circumflex (circles humerus)axillary becomes brachial artery (after pass teres major/just above armpit)brachial gives profunda brachii (posterior,deep to humerus) brachial bifurcates intoradial and ulnar arteries.Ulnar gives off common interosseus artery which gives off anterior and posterior interosseus arteries.Ulnar artery also give off deep palmar arch then suprficial palmar arch
roots of brachial plexus are between which 2 muscles?
anterior and medius scalene
up to which vertebra do the nerves exit on TOP of vertebra?
exit on top up to C8 then C8 exits on top of T1 and T1 nerve exits underneath T1 vertebra
what is crutch palsy, what nerve is affected?
extensor muscle weakness (radial nerve)
what injury? weak pronation,tingling, weak thumb and affects median nerve?
Carpell tunnel syndrome
what is Erb;s palsy?
top of pleaxus damaged, waiter's tip position
bottom of plexus damage, claw hand, difficult to flex wrist and digits....what injury and what nerve affected?
Erb's palsy also (ulnar nerve)
what nerve innervates pec major and minor?
medial pectoral nerve
what nerve innercates ONLY pec minor?
lateral pectoral nerve
artery that accompanies superficial arm veins
what is the pattern of the superficial arm veins?
the axillary vein gives off the cephalic vein then the brachial artery thenturns into the basilic vein.The median cubital vein connects the cephalic and basilic veins together and typically becomes the median cubital vein
which vein in arm is best fro drawing blood?
median cubital vein
describe a dislocated shoulder injury
happens when their is injury to the joint between humerus and scapula (glenohumeral joint) mahor symptom is loss of roundness of delotid and arm held to side away from body, forearm pointing outward
describe SEPERATED shoulder injury
the joint between acromion and clavicle is disrupted (acromioclavicular joint)usually from trauma to shoulder or fall on outstreched hand. symptoms: severe pain at trauma
define a strain and tissue type involved
stretching or tearing of MUSCLE
define sprain and tissue type involved
stretching or tearing of LIGAMENT
which of the elbow flexors is best at flexing when pronated?
biceps brachii
what are 3 elbow flexors?
biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis
what are the superfcial anterior forearm FLEXOR muscles from medial to lateral?
flexor carpi ulnaris O:med epi I:pisiformpalmaris longus O:med epi I:flex retinacflexor carpi radialis O:med epi I:2nd metacarpal
nearly all arm flexors originate where?
medial epicondlye of the humerus
nearly all extensors have their origin where?
lateral epicondlye of humerus
radius rotator muscles superior to inferior
SUPINATOR O:lateral epicondlye of humerus I: proximal 1/3 of radiusPRONATOR TERES: O:Medial epicondyle of humerus and medial coronoid of ulna I:mid lateral surface of radiusPRONATOR QUADRATUS O:distal 1/4 of ulna I:distal 1/4 of anterior radius
only muscle that attaches to the ulna at one end and radius at the other
pronator quadratus
what are the 3 deep flexors of anterior forearm?medial to lateral?
flexor digitorum superficialisflexor digitorum profundusflexor pollicus longus
posterior arm muscles superior to inferior
supraspinatusinfraspuinatuestriceps brachii long head, medial head, lateral head
attaches carpi ulnaris tendon to digits
palmar aponeurosis
3 flexors under wrist flexors?name them/action superficial to deep
FLEXOR DIGIT SUPERFICIALIS/flex proximal and medial phalanges and wrist when fingers extendedFLEXOR POLLICUS LONGUS/flex distal phalanx of thumb and other joints to wristFLEXOR DIGIT PROFUNDUS/flex interphalageal IP joints and wrist when fingers extended
3 flexors under wrist flexors?name them/action superficial to deep
FLEXOR DIGIT SUPERFICIALIS/flex proximal and medial phalanges and wrist when fingers extendedFLEXOR POLLICUS LONGUS/flex distal phalanx of thumb and other joints to wristFLEXOR DIGIT PROFUNDUS/flex interphalageal IP joints and wrist when fingers extended
what is the problem with tennis elbow?
inflammation of lateral epicondyle
whats an avulsion?
a tear
describe exact avulsion that causes mallet finger
extensor tendon is cut or torn from attachment to distal finger
what is in the anatomical snuffbox?
tendons of abductor pollicus longusextensor pollicus longus and brevis
what tendons are in carpal tunnel?nerve?
9 flexor tendons and the nerve is the median
what is treatment for CTS?
compression is released by surgical division of flexor retinaculum
muscles used for inspiration
external intercostala
muscles used for expiration
internal intercostals
what is thoracis outlet syndrome? what artery involved?
positional, intermittent compression of the brachial plexus, subclavian vein and verterbral artery
differentiate rib seperation vs dislocation
RIB SEPERATION is dislocation of area between rib and its costal cartilage (costocondral junction)RIB DISLOCATION is the displacemnt of costal cartilage from the sternum
define angina
chest pain from the heart not getting enough o2
define sternotomy
when sternum is spread for access to thoracic cavity for sugery
how many vertebrosternal ribs?
how many vertebrochondral ribs?
how many vertebral ribs?
vertebrae,skull,hyoid,ribs and sternum is what skeleton?
the appendicular skeleton consists of?
clavicle,scapula,arm bones, leg bones, and pelvis
describe spinal tap
withdrawal of CSF from lumbar cistern for tests of cns disorders. puncture between L3andL4 or L4andL5
describe epidural anesthesia
anesthetic agent injected into epidural space
a herpes zoster infection causes skin lesion caused from having chix pox virus that laid dormant in body
describe cauda equina
atrands of nerves that descend to join their spinal nerves
breast mainly consists of
glands,fibrous tissue,embedded in fatty matrix w/ blood vessels,lymphatics and nerves
define metastasis
dispersal of cancer cells to different parts of body
describe late stage breast cancer appearance
breast elevates when muscles contracts because cancer cells invade retromamary space of pec fascia
describe supernumerary nipples
aka polymastiaa rudimentary extra nipple may appear to be a mole until it changes pigment during pregnancy
what does primary lung fissure do? other name?
obliqueseperates upper and lower lobes
what does se3condary fissure do? name?
horizontal fissureseperates upper and middle lobes
which lung has 3 lobes?
which lung has lingula?
covering immediately on top of lung (touches it)
Visceral pleura
connective tissue covering that is stuck to interior chest wall
parietal pleura
space between visceral and parietal pleura
pleural cavity
define pneumothorax
air in pleural cavity
levels of
levels of bronchi
primary-secondary-tertiary-terminal bronchioles-respiratory bronchiles-alveolar ducts-alveolar sacs
define pleuritis or pleurisy
bacteria or virus irritates pleural cavity causes fluid increase
legal test for stillborn infant
hydrostatic or Raygat test (float the lungs of dead infant to dtermine if they took a breath afterbirth)
define aspiration...which lung?
when food or foreign body enters and lodges into lung. usually right bronchus
define aspiration...which lung?
when food or foreign body enters and lodges into lung. usually right bronchus
disease that is constriction of bronchi
what are pain sensing neurons around lungs?
pulmonary plexus
danger of broken rib?
that fractured rib will tear visceral pleura and lung causing pneumothorax
what is first branch of artery off aorta
coronary arteries
connective tissue on heart
visceral layer of serrous pericardium
outermost layer of connective tissue in pericardium
functions of lymph
drain excess interstitia; fluid from tissue spacestransport lipids and lipid soluble vitamins from GI tract to bloodprotect against invasion throuhg immune system responses
lymph nodes contain
B cellsT cellsfatfluid
where does thoracic duct empty into? what vein?
Left subclavian
where does right lymphatic duct dump into?
RIGHT subclavian
drains head and neck (trunnks)
jugular trunks
drains arms
subclavian trunks
bronchomediastinal trunk drains what part of body?
drains legs,pelvis?
lumbar trunks
what is cisterna chyli? where is it? function?
dilated lymph node that marks beginning of thoracic duct
define lymphangitis
secondary inflammation of lymph vessles causes red streaking on skin . happens when lymph system transports chemical or bacteria after injury or infection
define lymphadenitis
infection of lymph nodes
define lymphedema and cause
edema that occurs when lymph doesnt drain from area of body..often caused when a lymph node is surgically removed but still trying to drain
define stenosis
define deep vein thrombosis
blood clot in deep vein ususally of leg, caused by trauma
define pulmonary embolism
when clot travels to lung
adult name for foramen ovale...purpose as fetus
fossa ovalis (it allowed blood to flow from right to left atrium as fetus)
adult name for ductus arteriosus (purpose)
ligamentum arteriosum/the one in pulmonary trunk
adult name for umbilical vein/puprose
ligamentum teres hepatis/attached to liver and carried fully oxygenated fetal blood
adult name for ductus venosus
ligamentum venosum/shunted blood from umbilical vein to IVC
adult name for umbilical artery
medial umbilical ligaments
in the heart the azygos vein empties into"
what areas supplied by celiac trunk
what artery supplies:small intestinececumright colic flexure,transvers colon
superior mesenteric artery
inferior mesenteric artery supplies:
left colic flexuredescending colonsigmoid colon, rectum
gonadal artery and vein comes off:
renal vein and IVC
superior mesenteric drain into?
hepatic portal
inferior mesenteric dumps into?
splenic vein then hepatic portal
when blood leaves liver in drains into?
what 3 vessels forms hepatic portal?`
superior and inferior mesneteric and splenic veins
3 layers of uterus
ovarian artery comes off what vessel
what 2 female arteries come off internal iliac?
uterine and vaginal arteries
wheere does fertilization occur
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