Endocrine pre-test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sex char at puberty
ovaries
Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain
pituitary (mostly the anterior)
Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics
Testes
produce steroid hormones glucocorticoids and mineral locorticoids
adrenal glands
produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ
posterior pituitary
growth hormone-releasing hormone, ______ is its target
bones and muscle
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), its target is ____-
testes or ovaries
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) its target is ______
mammary glands
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
adrenal cortex
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), its target is _____
thyroid
An autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland
Grave's disease
Hyposecretion of growth hormone
pituitary dwarfism
hyposecretion of the pancreas
Diabetes mellitus
hypersecretion of growth hormones
acromegaly
hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults
myxedema
hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex
Cushings
Hypersecretion of growth hormone
acromegaly
hyposecretion of the thyroid in infants
cretinism
the gland that controls the figh-or-flight reaction
adrenal medulla
produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body
pancreas
produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue
parathyroid
produces the body's major metabolic hormones
thyroid
this part of the adrenal gland produces glucocorticoids
zona fasciculata
this part of the adrenal cortex/medulla produces epinephrine
adrenal medulla
this part of the adrenal cortex/medulla produces aldosterone
zona glomerulosa
excess hormone levels result in cushing syndrome
zona glomerulosa
hormones mimic sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters
adrenal medulla
produces androgens
zona reticularus
T OR F, IN HUMANS MELATONIN MAY INHIBIT SEUXAL MATURATION
TRUE
THE ANTAGONISTIC HORMONES THAT REGULATE THE BLOOD CA LEVEL ARE CALCITONIN-PARAHORMONE
TRUE
THE HORMONE THAT RAISES BLOOD SUGAR LEVES IS INSULIN
FALSE
ADDISON'S DISEASE IS DUE TO A DEFICIT OUTPUT OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS ONLY
FALSE
BOTH TURN ON FACTORS (HORMONAL, HUMORAL, AND NEURAL STIMULI) AND TURN OFF FACTORS (FEEDBACK INHIBITION AND OTHERS) MAY BE MODULATED BY THE ACTIVITY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
TRUE
ACTH SIMULATES THE ADRENAL CORTEX TO RELEASE CORTICOSTEROID HORMONES
TRUE
ACTH STIMULATES THE ADRENAL CORTEX TO RELEASE CORTICOSTEROID HORMONES
TRUE
LH IS REFERRED TO AS A GONADOTROPIN
TRUE
WITHAGE, CR=HRONIC STRESS INCREASES BLOOD LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND APPEARS TO CONTRIBUTE TO MEMORY DETERIORATION
TRUE
OXYTOCIN IS A STRONG STIMULANT OF UTERINE CONTRACTIONS
TRUE
FOLLICLE CELLS OF THE THYROID GLAND PRODUCE THYROGLOBULIN, WHILE FOLLICLE CELLS OF THE PARATHYROID PRODUCE CALCITONIN
FALSE
TYPE 2 DIABETES MAY REFLECT DECLINING RECEPTOR SENSIIVITY TO INSULIN RATHER THAN DECREASESD INSULIN PRODUCTION
TRUE
THE PRIME METABOLIC EFFECT OF CORTISOL IS GLUCONEOGENESIS
TRUE
TE BETA CELLS ARE THE PANCREATIC ISLET CELLS THAT PRODUCE INSULIN
TRUE
MOST TYPE 2 DIABETICS DO NOT PRODUCE INSULIN
FALSE
ALDOSTERONE IS THE MOST POTENT MINERALOCORTICOID PRODUCED IN THE ADRENALS BUT THE LEAST ABUNDANT
FALSE
ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE IS A HORMONE THAT CONTROLS THE BP IN PART BY INCREASING THE URINARY EXCRETION OF SODIUM
TRUE
ALTHOUGH GLUCAGON IS A SMALL POLYPEPTIDE IT IS NEVERTHELESS VERY POTENT IN ITS REGULATORY EFFECTS
TRUE
THE THYROID GLAND IS A LG GLAND THAT CONTROLS METABOIC FUNCTIONS THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN
TRUE
MANHY HORMONES SYNTHESIZED IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ARE CHEMICALLY IDENTICAL TO THE BRAIN NEUROTRANSMITTERS
TRUE
ALL OF THE FOLLOWING HORMONES ARE SECRETED BY THE ADENOHYPOPHSIS: ACTH, FSH AND LH
TRUE
iODINE IS AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT REQUIRED FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF THYROXINE
TRUE
THE ENDOCRINE GLAND THAT IS PROBABLY MALFUNCTIONING IF A PERSON HAS A HIGH METABOLIC RATE IS THE PARATHYROID
FALSE
GH ALWAYS EXERTS ITS INFLUENCE BY TARGETING OTHER ENDOCRINE GLANDS TO PRODUCE
FALSE
GLUCOCORTICOIDS ARE STEROID HORMONES THAT USUALALY ENHANCE THE IMMUNE RESPONSES WHEN SUFFERING FROM SEVERE STRESS
FALSE
DIRECT GENE ACTIVATION INVOLVES A 2ND MESSANGER
FALSE
ALL PEPTIDE HORMONE SYNTHESIS REQUIRES GENE ACTIVATION THAT PRODUCES mRNA
TRUE
ALL ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES EXCEPT GH AFFECT THEIR TARGET CELLS VIA A cAMP 2 ND MESSANGER
TRUE
GLUCONEOGENESIS OCCURS IN THE LIVER DUE TO THE ACTION OF ____
CORTISOL
NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IS DUE IN PART TO HORMONES PRODUCED BY THE ______
THYMUS GLAND
VIRTUALLY ALL OF THE PROTEIN OR AMINO ACID[BASED HORMONES EXERT THEIR EFFECTS THROUGH INTRACELLULAR _____
SECOND MESSANGERS
WHAT ARE THE CATEGORY OF ENDOCRINE GLAND STIMULUS, ________
HUMORAL, NEURAL, HORMONAL
CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES SECRETED BY CELLS INMTO THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUIDS AND THAT REGULATE THE METABOLIC FUNCTIONN OF THE OTHER CELLS IN THE BODY ARE CALLED
HORMONES
THE HYPOTHALAMIC-HYPOPHYSEAL TRACT IS PARTIALLY CONTAINED IN THE _____
INFUNDIBULUM
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A CARDINAL SIGN OF DIABETES MELLITUS, POLYRURIA,POLYDIPSIA, POLYPHAGIA
ALL OF THESE ARE SIGNS
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE FACTORS REQUIRED FOR TARGET CELL ACTIVATION BY HORMONE RECEPTOR INTERACTION_________
TYPE OF HORMONE
OXYTOCIN RELEASE IS AN EXAMPLE OF ____ FEEDBACK CONTROL MECHANISM
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
ADH IS INHIBITED BY _______
ALCOHOL, THUS THE HANGOVER EFFECT
THYROID HORMONE EXERTS ITS INFLUENCE BY
ENTERING THE CELL AND BINDING TO INTRAELLULAR RECEPTORS WITHIN THE NUCLEI
GONADOCORTICOID PRODUCTION BY THE _____ IS INSIGNIFICANT COMPARED TO SEX HORMONE RELEASE FROM THE GONADS LATE PUBERTY
ADRENAL GLAND
SOMETIMES PROLONGED EXCESSIVE EXPOSURE TO HIGH HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS CAUSE A PHENOMENON KNOWN AS_______
DOWN REGULATION
NAME SOME OF THE CHANGES CAUSED BY HORMONAL STIMULUS
CHANGE IN MEM POTENTIAL, STIMULATION OF GENETIC EVENT RESULTING IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
THE ABILITY OF A SPECIFIC TISSUE OR ORGAN TO RESPOND TO THE PRESENCE OF A HORMONE IS DEPENDANT ON____-
PRESENCE OF THE APPROPRIATE RECEPTORS ON THE CELLS OF THE TARGET TISSUE OR ORGAN
SEVERAL HORMONES ARE SYNTHESIZED IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND TRANSPORTED TO THE ANTERIOR PIT GLAND. THE TRANSPORTATION FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS TO ANT PIT GLAND IS THEROUGH THE ?
HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM
THE NEUROHYPOPHYSIS OR POSTERIOR LOB OF THE PITUITARY GLAND IS NOT A TRUE ENDOCRINE GLAND BECAUSE?
IT IS ONLY A HORMONE STARAGE AREA, RECEIVES HORMONES FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS
STEROID HORMONES EXERT THEIR ACTION BY
ENTERING THE NUCLEUS OF A CELL AND INITIATING OR ALTERING THE EXPRESSION OF A GENE
THE SECOND-MESSANGER MECHANISM OF HORMONE ACTION OPERATES BY
BINDING TO THE SPECIFIC RECEPTORS AND EMPOLOYING THE SERVICES OF G PROTEINS AND cAMP
HORMONES OFTEN CAUSE A CELL TO ELICIT MULTIPLE RESPONSES, THIS IS BECAUSE
PROTEIN KINAASE ACTIVATION, ENZYMES PHOSPHORYLATE MANY OTHER ENZYMES
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